As the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry moves towards industrial production, the need for qualification standards covering all aspects of the technology becomes ever more prevalent. While some standards and specifications for documenting the various aspects of AM processes and materials exist and continue to evolve, many such standards still need to be matured or are under consideration/development within standards development organizations. An important subset of this evolving the standardization domain has to do with critical property measurements for AM materials. While such measurement procedures are well documented, with various legacy standards for conventional metallic material forms such as cast or wrought structural alloys, many fewer standards are currently available to enable systematic evaluation of those properties in AM-processed metallic materials. This is due in part to the current lack of AM-specific standards and specifications for AM materials and processes, which are a logical precursor to the material characterization standards for any material system. This paper summarizes some of the important standardization activities, as well as limitations associated with using currently available standards for metal AM with a focus on measuring mission-critical properties. Technical considerations in support of future standards development, as well as a pathway for qualification/certification of AM parts enabled by the appropriate standardization landscape, are discussed.
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As defined by NASA, AM risk is a function of the following criteria: (1) all volumes and surfaces can be reliably inspected or proof tested, (2) the as-built surface can be fully removed on all fatigue-critical surfaces, (3) surfaces interfacing with sacrificial supports are fully accessible or can be fully improved, (4) structural walls or protrusions are ≤1 mm in cross-section, and (5) critical regions of the part require sacrificial supports.
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The authors wish to thank Ben Dutton of the Manufacturing Technology Centre, members of ISO Technical Committee 261 JG59, and Steve James of Aerojet Rocketdyne for their work on developing an AM defects catalog (Table I). The authors also wish to thank James McCabe of ANSI for his efforts to solicit inputs from AM, design, materials, NDT, and quality assurance experts to identify existing standards and standards in development, to assess current technology gaps related to standards, and to make recommendations for priority areas where there is a perceived need for additional standardization as described in Ref. 94.
This paper includes official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; not subject to copyright in the United States.
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Seifi, M., Gorelik, M., Waller, J. et al. Progress Towards Metal Additive Manufacturing Standardization to Support Qualification and Certification. JOM 69, 439–455 (2017) doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2265-2
- Additive Manufacturing
- Integrate Computational Material Engineer
- Fatigue Crack Growth Test
- American Welding Society