, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 575–579 | Cite as

Rethinking Timber: Investigation into the Use of Waste Macadamia Nut Shells for Additive Manufacturing

  • Jordan Girdis
  • Lauren Gaudion
  • Gwénaëlle Proust
  • Sandra Löschke
  • Andy Dong


In this article, the feasibility of turning macadamia nutshells, a waste product from the forestry and agricultural industries, into a three-dimensional (3D) printed, innovative, microtimber product is examined by composing a wood plastic feed stock for fusion deposition modeling. Different ratios of micro-ground macadamia nutshells and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics were mixed with a binding agent to extrude a range of filaments. By using a commercial 3D printer, these filaments helped to fabricate specimens that were tested in tension and compression. The results show that printed samples of macadamia-nutshell—ABS composites offer a viable alternative to commercially available wood polymer composite filaments. Although they possess similar mechanical properties, they have a lower density, making them suitable for a range of lightweight product applications. The research demonstrates that there are new opportunities for the use of macadamia nutshell filament in additive manufacturing as a result of its enhanced properties compared with traditional wood filaments.


Polylactic Acid Maleic Anhydride Failure Strain Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Wood Flour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Architecture, Design and PlanningThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

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