, Volume 68, Issue 12, pp 3029–3039 | Cite as

Refractory Corrosion Mechanisms in a Novel High Carbon Ferromanganese Production Furnace

  • D. GregurekEmail author
  • C. Wenzl
  • D. Kreuzer
  • A. Spanring
  • M. Kirschen
  • D. Zeelie
  • J. Groenewald


The present paper presents the refractory design for a novel HCFeMn smelting furnace that, other than standard submerged arc furnaces, allows the processing of fine ores. A combination of basic and non-basic materials, comprising bricks, castables and ramming was chosen, under consideration of the unique furnace design and process conditions. Post-mortem investigations on refractory samples from the different furnace zones were carried out and provided information about the main wear mechanism. Additionally, investigations of the process slag and metal were carried out both practically and theoretically using thermodynamic calculations, to better understand the corrosion phenomena observed in the post mortem samples.


Combustion Zone Slag Coating Monticellite Mineralogical Investigation Furnace Bottom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions of Thomas Prietl and Steyn Theron, which were deeply involved in the lining design and material optimization, as well as acted as an indispensable link between RHI Austria and Exxaro Alloystream™.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Gregurek
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Wenzl
    • 2
  • D. Kreuzer
    • 2
  • A. Spanring
    • 2
  • M. Kirschen
    • 2
  • D. Zeelie
    • 3
  • J. Groenewald
    • 4
  1. 1.RHI AG; TC LeobenLeobenAustria
  2. 2.RHI AGViennaAustria
  3. 3.CenturionSouth Africa
  4. 4.PretoriaSouth Africa

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