Advertisement

JOM

, Volume 68, Issue 12, pp 3029–3039 | Cite as

Refractory Corrosion Mechanisms in a Novel High Carbon Ferromanganese Production Furnace

  • D. GregurekEmail author
  • C. Wenzl
  • D. Kreuzer
  • A. Spanring
  • M. Kirschen
  • D. Zeelie
  • J. Groenewald
Article

Abstract

The present paper presents the refractory design for a novel HCFeMn smelting furnace that, other than standard submerged arc furnaces, allows the processing of fine ores. A combination of basic and non-basic materials, comprising bricks, castables and ramming was chosen, under consideration of the unique furnace design and process conditions. Post-mortem investigations on refractory samples from the different furnace zones were carried out and provided information about the main wear mechanism. Additionally, investigations of the process slag and metal were carried out both practically and theoretically using thermodynamic calculations, to better understand the corrosion phenomena observed in the post mortem samples.

Keywords

Combustion Zone Slag Coating Monticellite Mineralogical Investigation Furnace Bottom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions of Thomas Prietl and Steyn Theron, which were deeply involved in the lining design and material optimization, as well as acted as an indispensable link between RHI Austria and Exxaro Alloystream™.

References

  1. 1.
    S.E. Olsen, M. Tangstad, and T. Lindstad, Production of Manganese Ferroalloys, 1st ed. (Trondheim: SINTEF and Tapir Academic Press, 2007), pp. 43–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Coetsee, C. Reinke, J. Nell, and P.C. Pistorius, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B, 2534 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Eissa, H. El-Faramawy, A. Ahmed, S. Nabil, and H. Halfa, J. Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng. 11, 1 (2012).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Madias, A Review of the Production of Ferromanganese in Blast Furnace, AISTech Proceedings, vol. 1 (USA: Indianapolis, 2011), pp. 401–412.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.J. Fourie, US patent 6,146,437 (2000).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Gasik, Handbook of Ferroalloys—Theory and Technology, 1st ed. (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013), pp. 238–249.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Tangstad and S.E. Olsen, The Ferromanganese Process—Material and Energy Balance (Trondheim, Norway: INFACON, 1995), pp. 621–630.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Coetsee, J. Muller, J.A. Groenewald, A.A du Toit, and D. Zeelie, The Alloystream™ Process for HCFeMn Production (Kiev, Ukraine: INFACON, 2014), pp. 91–98.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Gregurek, A. Ressler, V. Reiter, A. Franzkowiak, A. Spanring, and T. Prietl, JOM 65, 1622 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    U. Hyungsic, L. Kyuyong, J. Choi, and Y. Chung, ISIJ Int. 52, 62 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.R. Nelson and R.J. Hunermark, The Tap-Hole—Key to Furnace Performance (Johannesburg, South Africa: The SAIMM Furnace Tapping Conference, 2014), pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Muller, J.H. Zietsman, and P.C. Pistorius, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B, 2639 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Routschka, Refractory Materials, 4th ed. (Essen: Vulkan-Verlag, 2011), p. 505.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Rigaud, Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook, ed. R.W. Revie (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011), p. 385.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Wenzl and A. Spanring, RHI Refractory Solutions—A Reliable Partner for the Ferroalloys Industry (Kiev, Ukraine: INFACON, 2015), pp. 264–269.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Luidold, H. Schnideritsch, and H. Antrekowitsch, Berg-Huettenmaenn Monatsh Suppl. 156, 1 (2011).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Gregurek, C. Wenzl, V. Reiter, H.L. Studnicka, and A. Spanring, JOM 66, 1677 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman, An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, 2nd ed. (UK: Essex CM20 2 JE, 1992), pp. 108–177.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton, and S. Petersen, Calphad 62, 189 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Gregurek
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Wenzl
    • 2
  • D. Kreuzer
    • 2
  • A. Spanring
    • 2
  • M. Kirschen
    • 2
  • D. Zeelie
    • 3
  • J. Groenewald
    • 4
  1. 1.RHI AG; TC LeobenLeobenAustria
  2. 2.RHI AGViennaAustria
  3. 3.CenturionSouth Africa
  4. 4.PretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations