JOM

, Volume 68, Issue 7, pp 1940–1947 | Cite as

Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development

  • Zachary C. Sims
  • D. Weiss
  • S. K. McCall
  • M. A. McGuire
  • R. T. Ott
  • Tom Geer
  • Orlando Rios
  • P. A. E. Turchi
Article

Abstract

Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

References

  1. 1.
    Critical Materials Strategy (United States Department of Energy, 2011).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.A. Gegel, Material & Process Consultancy (Morton, IL, 2016). Unpublished research.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.A. Luo, JOM 54, 42 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.G. Kaufman and E.L. Rooy, Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 2004).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.F. Mondolfo, Aluminum Alloys: Structure and Properties (Atlanta, GA: Elsevier, 2013).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Booth-Morrison, D.C. Dunand, and D.N. Seidman, Acta Mater. 59, 7029 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.B. Fuller, D.N. Seidman, and D.C. Dunand, Acta Mater. 51, 4803 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. DeHoff, Thermodynamics in Materials Science, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2006).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Viswanathan, ASM Handbook of Casting, vol. 15, 1st ed. (Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 2008), pp. 56–63.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.C. Flemings, E. Niyama, and H.F. Taylor, AFS Trans. 69, 625 (1961).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.R. Davis, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (ASM International: Materials Park, OH, 1993).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Chakrabarti and D.E. Laughlin, Prog. Mater Sci. 49, 389 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.C. Bergsma, M.E. Kassner, X. Li, and M.A. Wall, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 254, 112 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.B. Kang, A.D. Pelton, P. Chartrand, and C.D. Fuerst, CALPHAD 32, 413 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Zhong, M. Yang, and Z.K. Liu, CALPHAD 29, 303 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.M. Samuel, J. Gauthier, and F.H. Samuel, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 1785 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Rogl, Ternary Alloys vol. 5, ed. G. Petzow and G. Effenberg (Weinheim: VCH, 1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.S. Garde, T. Takeuchi, Y. Nakano, Y. Takeda, Y. Ota, Y. Miyauchi, K. Sugiyama, M. Hagiwara, K. Kindo, F. Honda, R. Settai, and Y. Ōnuki, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 124704 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.A. Collins, Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design: Analysis, Prediction, Prevention (New York: Wiley, 1993).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (outside the U.S.) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary C. Sims
    • 1
  • D. Weiss
    • 2
  • S. K. McCall
    • 3
  • M. A. McGuire
    • 1
  • R. T. Ott
    • 4
  • Tom Geer
    • 1
  • Orlando Rios
    • 1
  • P. A. E. Turchi
    • 3
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Eck IndustriesManitowocUSA
  3. 3.Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  4. 4.Ames National LaboratoryAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations