, Volume 67, Issue 10, pp 2254–2261 | Cite as

Physical Metallurgy of High-Entropy Alloys

  • Jien-Wei Yeh


Two definitions of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), based on composition and entropy, are reviewed. Four core effects, i.e., high entropy, sluggish diffusion, severe lattice distortion, and cocktail effects, are mentioned to show the uniqueness of HEAs. The current state of physical metallurgy is discussed. As the compositions of HEAs are entirely different from that of conventional alloys, physical metallurgy principles might need to be modified for HEAs. The thermodynamics, kinetics, structure, and properties of HEAs are briefly discussed relating with the four core effects of HEAs. Among these, a severe lattice distortion effect is particularly emphasized because it exerts direct and indirect influences on many aspects of microstructure and properties. Because a constituent phase in HEAs can be regarded as a whole-solute matrix, every lattice site in the matrix has atomic-scale lattice distortion. In such a distorted lattice, point defects, line defects, and planar defects are different from those in conventional matrices in terms of atomic configuration, defect energy, and dynamic behavior. As a result, mechanical and physical properties are significantly influenced by such a distortion. Suitable mechanisms and theories correlating composition, microstructure, and properties for HEAs are required to be built in the future. Only these understandings make it possible to complete the physical metallurgy of the alloy world.


Stack Fault Energy Lattice Distortion Physical Metallurgy Configurational Entropy Conventional Alloy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    R.E. Reed-Hill and R. Abbaschian, Physical Metallurgy Principles, 3rd ed. (Boston, MA: PWS Publishing Company, 1994), pp. xiii–xv.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.W. Cahn and P, Haasen, eds., Physical Metallurgy, 3rd ed. (New York: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1983), pp. 1–35.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.W. Yeh, S.K. Chen, S.J. Lin, J.Y. Gan, T.S. Chin, T.T. Shun, C.H. Tsau, and S.Y. Chang, Adv. Eng. Mater. 6, 299 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.W. Yeh, JOM 65, 1759 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.W. Yeh, Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 31, 633 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Zhang, T.T. Zuo, Z. Tang, M.C. Gao, K.A. Dahmen, P.K. Liaw, and Z.P. Lu, Prog. Mater Sci. 61, 1 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L.J. Santodonato, Y. Zhang, M. Feygenson, C.M. Parish, M.C. Gao, R.J.K. Weber, J.C. Neuefeind, Z. Tang, and P.K. Liaw, Nat. Commun. 6, 5964 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Zhang, Y.J. Zhou, J.P. Lin, G.L. Chen, and P.K. Liaw, Adv. Eng. Mater. 10, 534 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Zhang, Z.P. Lu, S.G. Ma, P.K. Liaw, Z. Tang, Y.Q. Cheng, and M.C. Gao, MRS Commun. 4, 57 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Guo, Q. Hu, C. Ng, and C.T. Liu, Intermetallics 41, 96 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Guo, J. Mater. Sci. Tech. 31, 1223 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K.Y. Tsai, M.H. Tsai, and J.W. Yeh, Acta Mater. 61, 4887 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Lee (Master’s thesis, National Tsing Hua University, 2013).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.P. Bhattacharjee, G.D. Sathiaraj, M. Zaid, J.R. Gatti, C. Lee, C.W. Tsai, and J.W. Yeh, J. Alloy. Compd. 587, 544 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.J. Zaddach, C. Niu, C.C. Kock, and D.L. Irving, JOM 65, 1780 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Gludovatz, A. Hohenwarter, D. Catoor, E.H. Chang, E.P. George, and R.O. Ritchie, Science 345, 1153 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.C. Gao, J.W. Yeh, P.K. Liaw, and Y. Zhang, High-Entropy Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications (Cham: Springer, 2015).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations