Advertisement

JOM

, Volume 61, Issue 9, pp 21–29 | Cite as

Bulk metallic glasses for biomedical applications

  • Jan Schroers
  • Golden Kumar
  • Thomas M. Hodges
  • Stephen Chan
  • Themis R. Kyriakides
Biomedical Materials and Devices Overview

Abstract

The selection criteria for biomaterials include the material’s properties and biocompatibility, and the ability to fabricate the desired shapes. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are relative newcomers in the field of biomaterials but they exhibit an excellent combination of properties and processing capabilities desired for versatile implant applications. To further evaluate the suitability of BMGs for biomedical applications, we analyzed the biological responses they elicited in vitro and in vivo. The BMGs promoted cell adhesion and growth in vitro and induced improved foreign body responses in vivo suggesting their potential use as biomaterials. Because of the BMGs’ flexible chemistry, atomic structure, and surface topography, they offer a unique opportunity to fabricate complex implants and devices with a desirable biological response from a material with superior properties over currently used metallic biomaterials.

Keywords

Foam Material Transaction Metallic Glass Bulk Metallic Glass Apply Physic Letter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. Baden, “Prosthetic Therapy of Congenital and Aquired Clefts on the Palate: An Historical Essay,” J. Hist. Med. Alld. Sci., X(3) (1955), pp. 290–301; doi: 10.1093/jhmas/X.3.290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.L. Johnson, “Bulk Glass-forming Metallic Alloys: Science and Technology,” MRS Bulletin, 24(10) (1999), pp. 42–56.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Schroers and N. Paton, “Amorphous Metal Alloys Form Like Plastics,” Advanced Materials & Processes, 164(1) (2006), pp. 61–63.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.A. Schuh, T.C. Hufnagel, and U. Ramamurty, “Overview No.144—Mechanical Behavior of Amorphous Alloys,” Acta Materialia, 55(12) (2007), pp. 4067–4109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.F. Ashby and A.L. Greer, “Metallic Glasses as Structural Materials,” Scripta Materialia, 54(3) (2006), pp. 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Inoue, T. Zhang, and T. Masumoto, “Zr-Al-Ni Amorphous-Alloys with High Glass-Transition Temperature and Significant Supercooled Liquid Region,” Materials Transactions JIM, 31(3) (1990), pp. 177–183.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Jin and J.F. Loffler, “Bulk Metallic Glass Formation in Zr-Cu-Fe-Al Alloys,” Applied Physics Letters, 86(24) (2005), 241909.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Peker and W.L. Johnson, “A Highly Processable Metallic-Glass—Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5,” Applied Physics Letters, 63(17) (1993), pp. 2342–2344.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. Ponnambalam, S.J. Poon, and G.J. Shiflet, “Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-(Y,Ln)-C-B (Ln = lanthanides) Bulk Metallic Glasses as Formable Amorphous Steel Alloys,” J. Materials Research, 19(10) (2004), pp. 3046–3052.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Z.P. Lu et al., “Structural Amorphous Steels,” Physical Review Letters, 92(24) (2004), 245503.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Q.S. Zhang, W. Zhang, and A. Inoue, “New Cu-Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses with Large Diameters of up to 1.5 cm,” Scripta Materialia, 55(8) (2006), pp. 711–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.H. Xu et al., “Formation and Properties of New Ni-based Amorphous Alloys with Critical Casting Thickness up to 5 mm,” Acta Materialia, 52(12) (2004), pp. 3493–3497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X.H. Lin and W.L. Johnson, “Formation of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni Bulk Metallic Glasses,” J. Applied Physics, 78(11) (1995), pp. 6514–6519.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Inoue et al., “Mg-Cu-Y Amorphous-Alloys with High Mechanical Strengths Produced by a Metallic Mold Casting Method,” Materials Transactions JIM, 32(7) (1991), pp. 609–616.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Nishiyama and A. Inoue, “Supercooling Investigation and Critical Cooling Rate for Glass Formation in P-Cu-Ni-P Alloy,” Acta Materialia, 47(5) (1999), pp. 1487–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Schroers et al., “Gold Based Bulk Metallic Glass,” Applied Physics Letters, 87(6) (2005), pp. 061912.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Schroers and W.L. Johnson, “Highly Processable Bulk Metallic Glass-forming Alloys in the Pt-Co-Ni-Cu-P System,” Applied Physics Letters, 84(18) (2004), pp. 3666–3668.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.N. Elias et al., “Biomedical Applications of Titanium and Its Alloys,” JOM, 60(3) (2008), pp. 46–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.L. Morrison et al., “The Electrochemical Evaluation of a Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass in a Phosphate-buffered Saline Electrolyte,” J. Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 74A(3) (2005), pp. 430–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Buzzi et al., “Cytotoxicity of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses,” Intermetallics, 14(7) (2006), pp. 729–734.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Liu et al., “Formation and Biocompatibility of Ni-free Zr60Nb5Cu20Fe5Al Bulk Metallic Glass,” Materials Transactions, 48(7) (2007), pp. 1879–1882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Variola et al., “Improving Biocompatibitity of Implantable Metals by Nanoscale Modification of Surfaces: An Overview of Strategies, Fabrication Methods, and Challenges,” Small, 5(9) (2009), pp. 996–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Waniuk, J. Schroers, and W.L. Johnson, “Timescales of Crystallization and Viscous Flow of the Bulk Glass-forming Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be Alloys,” Physical Review B, 67(18) (2003), p. 184203.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.M. Jay et al., “Foreign Body Giant Cell Formation is Preceded by Lamellipodia Formation and Can be Attenuated by Inhibition of Rac1 Activation,” American Journal of Pathology, 171(2) (2007), pp. 632–640.PubMedCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.M. Tian and T.R. Kyriakides, “Thrombospondin 2-null Mice Display an Altered Brain Foreign Body Response to Polyvinyl Alcohol Sponge Implants,” Biomedical Materials, 4(1) (2009), p. 015010.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T.R. Kyriakides et al., “Mice that Lack the Angiogenesis Inhibitor, Thrombospondin 2, Mount an Altered Foreign Body Reaction Characterized by Increased Vascularity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(8) (1999), pp. 4449–4454.PubMedCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.D. Deligianni et al., “Effect of Surface Roughness of the Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V on Human Bone Marrow Cell Response and on Protein Adsorption,” Biomaterials, 22(11) (2001), pp. 1241–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Curtis and C. Wilkinson, “Topographical Control of Cells,” Biomaterials, 18(24) (1997), pp. 1573–1583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    I. Degasne et al., “Effects of Roughness, Fibronectin and Vitronectin on Attachment, Spreading, and Proliferation of Human Osteoblast-like Cells (Saos-2) on Titanium Surfaces,” Calcified Tissue International, 64(6) (1999), pp. 499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.M. Anderson, A. Rodriguez, and D.T. Chang, “Foreign Body Reaction to Biomaterials,” Seminars in Immunology, 20(2) (2008), pp. 86–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T.R. Kyriakides et al., “Altered Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Angiogenesis in Sponge Granulomas of Thrombospondin 2-null Mice,” American Journal of Pathology, 159(4) (2001), pp. 1255–1262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Bogdanski et al., “Easy Assessment of the Biocompatibility of Ni-Ti Alloys by in Vitro Cell Culture Experiments on a Functionally Graded Ni-NiTi-Ti Material,” Biomaterials, 23(23) (2002), pp. 4549–4555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Choi et al., “Calcium Phosphate Coating of Nickel-titanium Shape-memory Alloys, Coating Procedure and Adherence of Leukocytes and Platelets,” Biomaterials, 24(21) (2003), pp. 3689–3696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Schroers, “The Superplastic Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses,” JOM, 57(5) (2005), pp. 35–39.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C.J. Gilbert, R.O. Ritchie, and W.L. Johnson, “Fracture Toughness and Fatigue-crack Propagation in a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be Bulk Metallic Glass,” Applied Physics Letters, 71(4) (1997), pp. 476–478.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Schroers et al., “Transition from Nucleation Controlled to Growth Controlled Crystallization in Pd43Ni10Cu27P20 Melts,” Acta Materialia, 49(14) (2001), pp. 2773–2781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Schroers, Y. Wu, and W.L. Johnson, “Heterogeneous Influences on the Crystallization of Pd43Ni10Cu27P20,” Philosophical Magazine a-Physics of Condensed Matter Structure Defects and Mechanical Properties, 82(6) (2002), pp. 1207–1217.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Wiest et al., “Zr-Ti-based Be-bearing Glasses Optimized for High Thermal Stability and Thermoplastic Formability,” Acta Materialia, 56(11) (2008), pp. 2625–2630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Schroers et al., “Gold Based Bulk Metallic Glass,” Applied Physics Letters, 87(6) (2005), p. 61912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Schroers, “On the Formability of Bulk Metallic Glass in its Supercooled Liquid State,” Acta Materialia, 56(3) (2008), pp. 471–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Kumar, H.X. Tang, and J. Schroers, “Nanomoulding with Amorphous Metals,” Nature, 457(7231) (2009), pp. 868–U128.PubMedCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. Busch, J. Schroers, and W.H. Wang, “Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Bulk Metallic Glass,” MRS Bulletin, 32(8) (2007), pp. 620–623.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Schroers, Q. Pham, and A. Desai, “Thermoplastic Forming of Bulk Metallic Glass—A Technology for MEMS and Microstructure Fabrication,” J. Microelectromechanical Systems, 16(2) (2007), pp. 240–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Schroers et al., “Blow Molding of Bulk Metallic Glass,” Scripta Materialia, 57(4) (2007), pp. 341–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Schroers et al., “Synthesis Method for Amorphous Metallic Foam,” J. Applied Physics, 96(12) (2004), pp. 7723–7730.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.D. Demetriou et al., “High Porosity Metallic Glass Foam: A Powder Metallurgy Route,” Applied Physics Letters, 91(16) (2007), p. 161903.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Wada et al., “Supercooled Liquid Foaming of a Zr-Al-Cu-Ag Bulk Metallic Glass Containing Pressurized Helium Pores,” Materials Letters, 63(11) (2009), pp. 858–860.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. Kurella and N.B. Dahotre, “Review Paper: Surface Modification for Bioimplants: The Role of Laser Surface Engineering,” J. Biomaterials Applications, 20(1) (2005), pp. 5–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Tan and W.M. Saltzman, “Topographical Control of Human Neutrophil Motility on Micropatterned Materials with Various Surface Chemistry,” Biomaterials, 23(15) (2002), pp. 3215–3225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Tan and W.M. Saltzman, “Biomaterials with Hierarchically Defined Micro- and Nanoscale Structure,” Biomaterials, 25(17) (2004), pp. 3593–3601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    N. Nath et al., “Surface Engineering Strategies for Control of Protein and Cell Interactions,” Surface Science, 570(1–2) (2004), pp. 98–110.CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    C.C. Berry et al., “The Influence of Microscale Topography on Fibroblast Attachment and Motility,” Biomaterials, 25(26) (2004), pp. 5781–5788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Choi-Yim et al., “Quasistatic and Dynamic Deformation of Tungsten Reinforced Zr57Nb5Al10Cu15.4Ni12.6 Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites,” Scripta Materialia, 45(9) (2001), pp. 1039–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    P. Roach et al., “Modern Biomaterials: A Review—Bulk Properties and Implications of Surface Modifications,” J. Materials Science-Materials in Medicine, 18(7) (2007), pp. 1263–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    N. Melikian and W. Wijns, “Drug-eluting Stents: A Critique,” Heart, 94(2) (2008), pp. 145–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    T.F. Luscher et al., “Drug-eluting Stent and Coronary Thrombosis-Biological Mechanisms and Clinical Implications,” Circulation, 115(8) (2007), pp. 1051–1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    V.S. Polikov, P.A. Tresco, and W.M. Reichert, “Response of Brain Tissue to Chronically Implanted Neural Electrodes,” J. Neuroscience Methods, 148(1) (2005), pp. 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    S. Takeuchi et al., “3D Flexible Multichannel Neural Probe Array,” J. Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14(1) (2004), pp. 104–107.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. Takeuchi et al., “Parylene Flexible Neural Probes Integrated with Microfluidic Channels,” Lab on a Chip, 5(5) (2005), pp. 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Completo, F. Fonseca, and J.A. Simoes, “Strain Shielding in Proximal Tibia of Stemmed Knee Prosthesis: Experimental Study,” J. Biomechanics, 41(3) (2008), pp. 560–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    B.V. Krishna et al., “Engineered Porous Metals for Implants,” JOM, 60(5) (2008), pp. 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    M.F. Ashby, “The Mechanical Properties of Cellular Solids,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 14A (1983), pp. 1755–1769.ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A.H. Brothers and D.C. Dunand, “Porous and Foamed Amorphous Metals,” MRS Bulletin, 32(8) (2007), pp. 639–643.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    C.E. Campbell and A.F. Von Recum, “Microtopography and Soft Tissue Response,” J. Invest. Surg., 2 (1989), pp. 51–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A.H. Brothers and D.C. Dunand, “Syntactic Bulk Metallic Glass Foam,” Applied Physics Letters, 84(7) (2004), pp. 1108–1110.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Wada and A. Inoue, “Formation of Porous Pd-based Bulk Glassy Alloys by a High Hydrogen Pressure Melting-Water Quenching Method and Their Mechanical Properties,” Materials Transactions, 45(8) (2004), pp. 2761–2765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. Jayaraj et al., “Nanometer-sized Porous Ti-based Metallic Glass,” Scripta Materialia, 55(11) (2006), pp. 1063–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. Schroers, C. Veazey, and W.L. Johnson, “Amorphous Metallic Foam,” Applied Physics Letters, 82(3) (2003), pp. 370–372.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Schroers
    • 1
  • Golden Kumar
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Hodges
    • 1
  • Stephen Chan
    • 2
  • Themis R. Kyriakides
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathology and Biomedical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations