JOM

, Volume 58, Issue 5, pp 48–50 | Cite as

Crucible damascus steel: A fascination for almost 2,000 years

  • Ann Feuerbach
Overview Archaeotechnology

Abstract

Whether you call it Indian wootz, Central Asian Pulad, Bulat, or Oriental Damascus, crucible steel has fascinated craftsmen, scientists, and laymen for almost 2,000 years. This paper will present current research on the origins of crucible steel, its influence on the history of ferrous alloys, and the current interest in this decorative, yet functional, metal.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Elgood, The Arms and Armour of Arabia in the 18th–19th and 20th Centuries (London: Scholar Press 1994), pp. 103–108.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Sachse, Damascus Steel: Myth, History, Technology, Applications (Wirtschaftseverk: N.W. Verl. Fur Neue Wiss, 1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H.M. Said, Al-Beruni's Book on Mineralogy: The Book Most Comprehensive in Knowledge on Precious Stones (Islamabad: Pakistan Hijra Council, 1989), pp. 219–220.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Hadfield, Faraday and His Metallurgical Researches (London: Chapman and Hall, 1931).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Rostoker and B. Bronson, Pre-Industrial Iron, Its Technology and Ethnology, Archaeomaterials Monograph No. 1 (Philadelphia: Archaeomaterials, 1990).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Wilkinson, “On Iron,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (5) (1839), p. 389.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.W. Allan and B. Gilmour, Persian Steel: The Tanavoli Collection (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Feuerbach, D.R. Griffiths, and J.F. Merkel, “Crucible Steel Manufacturing at Merv,” Mining and Metal Production through the Ages, ed. P. Craddock and J. Lang (London: British Museum, 2003), pp. 258–266.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, www.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/Sfgate (2001).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India, 1 (2) (London, 1928), p. 77.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Verhoeven, A.H. Pendray, and W.E. Dauksch, “The Key Role of Impurities in Ancient Damascus Steel Blades,” JOM, 50 (9) (1998), pp. 58–64.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Craddock, “New Light on the Production of Crucible Steel in Asia,” Bulletin of the Metals Museum, 29 (1998), p. 49.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Srinivasan and D. Griffiths, “Crucible Steel in South India-Preliminary Investigations on Crucibles from Some Newly Identified Sites,” Material Issues in Art and Archaeology, 5 (1997), pp. 111–125.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Feuerbach, Crucible Steel in Central Asia: Production, Use, and Origins, University College London, Institute of Archaeology, Ph.D. dissertation.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Wayman and G. Julefl, “Crucible Steel Making in Sri Lanka,” Historical Metallurgy, 33 (1999), pp. 26–42.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Bronson, “The Making and Selling of Wootz, A Crucible Steel of India,” Archaeomaterials 1 (1986), pp. 13–51.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Th. Rehren and O. Papakhristu, “Cutting Edge Technology—The Ferghana Process of Medieval Crucible Steel Smelting,” Metalla (Bochum: 2000), 7 (2) pp. 37–51.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Moxon, Mechanick Exercises or Doctrine of Handy Works (London: Ludgate, 1677).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Rostoker and B. Bronson, Pre-Industrial Iron, Its Technology and Ethnology, Monograph No. 1 (Philadelphia: Archaeomaterials, 1990), p. 130.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Faraday, “An Analysis of Wootz, or Indian Steel,” Quarterly Journal of Science (7) (1819), pp. 288.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Feuerbach
    • 1
  1. 1.Middle East and Central Asia Department at HofstraUniversity in Hempstead

Personalised recommendations