Pressure–Impulse (P–I) Diagrams for Reinforced Concrete (RC) Structures: A Review

  • M. AbediniEmail author
  • Azrul A. MutalibEmail author
  • Sudharshan N. Raman
  • R. Alipour
  • E. Akhlaghi
Original Paper


In recent years, many studies have been conducted by governmental and nongovernmental organizations across the world attempt to better understand the effect of blast loads on structures in order to better design against specific threats. Pressure–Impulse (P–I) diagram is an easiest method for describing a structure’s response to blast load. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive overview of P–I diagrams in RC structures under blast loads. The effects of different parameters on P–I diagram is performed. Three major methods to develop P–I diagram for various damage criterions are discussed in this research. Analytical methods are easy and simple to use but have limitations on the kinds of failure modes and unsuitable for complex geometries and irregular shape of pulse loads that they can capture. Experimental method is a good way to study the structure response to blast loads; however, it is require special and expensive instrumentation and also not possible in many cases due to the safety and environmental consideration. Despite numerical methods are capable of incorporating complex features of the material behaviour, geometry and boundary conditions. Hence, numerical method is suggested for developing P–I diagrams for new structural elements.



The authors would like to thank Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for financial support under Grant FRGS-1-2015-TK01-UKM-02-4 and AP-2015-011.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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Copyright information

© CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Structural EngineeringUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mahshahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityMahshahrIran

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