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Arthropod-Plant Interactions

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 89–100 | Cite as

Aphid herbivory as a potential driver of primary succession in coastal dunes

  • Charlotte Van Moorleghem
  • Eduardo de la PeñaEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Herbivory is a major factor affecting both the performance and the fitness of the species composing a plant community and, ultimately, conditioning its temporal and spatial dynamics. Coastal dunes are a typical example of primary succession where different biotic and abiotic factors determine plant species occurrence; however, the effect of insect herbivory herein has remained little explored. To address this matter, we combined an observational study along a successional gradient with a green-house experiment to determine the occurrence and the impact of plant–aphid interactions. We focused on the species Schizaphis rufula, a widespread and abundant aphid associated with dune grasses in early stages of primary succession in Europe. Firstly, we studied aphid infestation rates on the dune grass Ammophila arenaria along a succession gradient in three locations of the North Sea coast to address the relationship between plant community composition and aphid occurrence; secondly, we tested the effect of aphid herbivory on a set of dune species typical for the different stages of succession. We found that the degree of aphid infestation was inversely correlated with the degree of dune fixation. The results of the experiment showed that aphid multiplication was significantly higher and its effect more pronounced on two early successional grass species, i.e. A. arenaria and Leymus arenarius. Here aphid multiplication resulted in a severe decrease in plant biomass; in late successional grass species, there was limited multiplication and no effect on biomass. The results of the field survey and the green-house experiment indicate that aphids show a clear preference for plants from early successional stages and, moreover, they have a greater impact on these plant species. All this supports the hypothesis of aphid herbivory as a driving factor of primary succession in coastal dunes.

Keywords

Plant–insect interactions Schizaphis rufula Primary dune succession Plant competition Aboveground herbivory Host specificity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Eduardo de la Peña thanks the support of the Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2012-10254, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. This study was also supported by the programme Europa Investigación 2015 (EUIN2015-62833). We thank the Nature Reserve Westhoek, and all the staff at the Terrestrial Ecology group of Ghent University and Eline Vermote for their help during the course of this study and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. We thank Prof. Jan Pettersson for sending to us his original works on the genus Schizaphis.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte Van Moorleghem
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eduardo de la Peña
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratory for Functional Morphology, Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium
  3. 3.Institute for Mediterranean and Subtropical Horticulture “La Mayora” (IHSM-UMA-CSIC)Algarrobo-CostaSpain

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