Arthropod-Plant Interactions

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 471–488 | Cite as

Egg adhesion of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to various substrates: I. Leaf surfaces of different apple cultivars

  • Loris Al Bitar
  • Stanislav N. Gorb
  • Claus P. W. Zebitz
  • Dagmar Voigt
Original Paper

Abstract

Codling moths, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), of the first generation deposit eggs on apple leaves in the vicinity of small fruits. The choice of the suitable oviposition sites and proper fixation of eggs are expected to be crucial factors for the survival of the offspring. In this study, we investigated egg adhesion of the codling moth to leaf surfaces of different cultivars of the domestic apple, Malus domestica Borkh., by measuring the pull-off force required to detach the eggs from leaves. Since surface features may influence insect egg adhesion, morphological and physicochemical properties (wettability, free surface energy) of these leaf surfaces were analyzed. Furthermore, eggs and their adhesives covering leaf surfaces were visualized. Eggs on the smooth upper leaf surfaces of all tested cultivars required significantly similar pull-off forces to be detached, at a total average of 6.0 mN. Up to 2–3 times stronger pull-off forces had to be applied to detach eggs from trichome-covered lower leaves, and these forces differed significantly between cultivars. The role of leaf surface properties is discussed in the context of egg adhesion, oviposition site choice, female attachment, as well as neonate locomotion speed and survival. The obtained results shed light on the susceptibility of various apple cultivars and leaf surfaces to the infestation of apple trees by first-generation codling moths.

Keywords

Adhesion Free surface energy Insect egg Malus domestica Oviposition Plant surface 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author is grateful to Martin Hofmeister (Institute of Phytomedicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany) for his valuable help in graphs and Fig. 1. This study was supported by a PhD grant from Syria to LAB and by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (BMBF, project BIONA 01RB0802A) to SNG.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loris Al Bitar
    • 1
  • Stanislav N. Gorb
    • 2
    • 3
  • Claus P. W. Zebitz
    • 1
  • Dagmar Voigt
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of PhytomedicineUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Evolutionary Biomaterials Group, Department of Thin Films and Biological SystemsMax Planck Institute for Metals ResearchStuttgartGermany
  3. 3.Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological InstituteChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielGermany

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