Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reproduction and development on five noncultivated grass hosts
- 194 Downloads
The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a small grains pest of worldwide economic importance. The Russian wheat aphid is polyphagous and may encounter differential selective pressures from noncultivated grass hosts. Aphid biotypic diversity can disrupt the progress of plant breeding programs, leading to a decreased ability to manage this pest. The goal of this research was to quantify Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 (RWA2) reproductive and development rates on five common noncultivated grass hosts to gain information about host quality, potential refuges, and sources of selection pressure. First, RWA2 reproduction was compared on crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, (L.) Gaertn.), intermediate wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia, (Host) Nevski), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus, (Link) Gould ex Shinners), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithi, (Rydb.) A. Löve), and foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum, (L.) Tesky) at 18–24°C. Second, RWA2 reproduction was compared on intermediate and crested wheatgrass at three temperature regimes 13–18°C, 18–24°C, and 24–29°C. At moderate temperatures (18–24°C), the intrinsic rate of increase values for all five hosts ranged from 0.141 to 0.199, indicating the possibility for strong population sources on all tested hosts. Aphids feeding on crested and intermediate wheatgrass at the 13–18°C temperature had lower fecundity, less nymph production days, longer generational times, and lower intrinsic rate of increase than aphids feeding at the 18–24°C temperature regime. Aphids feeding at 24–29°C did not survive long enough to reproduce. The positive intrinsic rates of increase in Russian wheat aphid on the wheatgrasses suggest that these grasses can support aphid populations at moderate to low temperatures.
KeywordsRussian wheat aphid Noncultivated hosts Reproduction Development Temperature
We would like to thank Jeff Rudolph for maintaining the RWA2 colony. This research was supported by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Project 646, Biology and Management of Russian Wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), in Colorado.
- Behle RW, Michels GJ (1990) Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera, Aphididae) development, reproduction, and survival on wheat and rye grown in 4 host-plant media. Southwestern Entomol 15:109–121Google Scholar
- Burd JD, Butts RA, Elliot NC, Shufran KA (1998) Seasonal development, overwintering biology, and host plant interactions of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in North America. In: Quisenberry SS, Peairs FB (eds) A response model for an introduced pest—the Russian wheat aphid. Thomas Say Publ. in Entomol., Entomol. Soc. Amer., Lanham, MD, pp 65–99Google Scholar
- Girma M, Wilde G, Reese JC (1990) Influence of temperature and plant-growth stage on development, reproduction, life-span, and intrinsic rate of increase of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ Entomol 19:1438–1442Google Scholar
- Morrison WP, Peairs FB (1998) Response model concept and economic impact. In Quisenberry SS, Peairs FB(eds) A response model for an introduced pest—the Russian wheat aphid. Thomas Say Publ. in Entomol., Entomol. Soc. Amer., Lanham, MD, pp 1–11Google Scholar
- Ni XZ, Quisenberry SS (1997) Effects of wheat leaf epicuticular structure on host selection and probing rhythm of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 90:1400–1407Google Scholar
- Porter DR, Burd JD, Shufran KA, Webster JA, Teetes GL (1997) Greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotypes: selected by resistant cultivars or pre-adapted opportunists? J Econ Entomol 90(5):1055–1065Google Scholar
- Randolph T, Weiland A, Peairs F, Walker C, Pucherelli S (2011) Occurrence of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on non-cultivated grasses within Colorado montane environments. Colorado State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin TB11-01:1–19Google Scholar
- SAS Institute (2005) Statistics and graphics guide. Version 9. SAS Inst, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar