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Plant Biotechnology Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 579–590 | Cite as

De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes relevant to variegation in hawthorn flowers

  • Wei JiEmail author
  • Wei Zhao
  • Rong-Chen Liu
  • Xiao-Bo Jiao
  • Kai Han
  • Zhong-Yi Yang
  • Mei-Ying Gao
  • Rui Ren
  • Xiu-Juan Fan
  • Ming-Xia YangEmail author
Original Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

Flower color variegation has been observed in many plant species. However, pink flowers on the white-blooming hawthorn trees found by our group earlier have never been reported. To better understand the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in variegated hawthorn flowers, white and pink flowers at different developmental stages (S1 and S2) underwent transcriptome sequencing separately. Approximately 34.28 Gb of high-quality data were obtained and assembled into 100,013 unigenes with an average length of 706.93 bp. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis, and DEGs of two types of hawthorn flowers at different developmental stages were studied. Based on the enrichment analysis of DEGs, eight anthocyanin-modified enzyme genes or other enzyme genes that indirectly affect anthocyanin synthesis (5AT, 3GGT, and AI, β-Glu, two Aux/IAAs, two PODs), eight structural genes (UFGT, DFR, CHI, two F3Hs, and three PALs), and three transcription factors (one MYB and two bHLHs) were also identified. We randomly selected 15 genes, and the trends in the expression levels of these genes in the organs of white and pink flowers at different developmental stages were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Mass sequence data obtained by RNA-seq of variegated hawthorn flowers provided basic sequence information and a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation.

Keywords

Hawthorn Variegation De novo assembly Transcriptome analysis DEGs qRT-PCR 

Abbreviations

DEGs

Differentially expressed genes

qRT-PCR

Quantitative real-time PCR

NR

Non-redundant protein database

GO

Gene ontology

COG

Cluster of orthologous groups of proteins database

KEGG

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database

5AT

Anthocyanin-5-aromyltransferase

3GGT

Anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside-2″-O-glucosyltransferase

AI

Acid invertase

Aux/IAA

Auxin/indoleacetic acid

POD

Peroxidase

β-Glu

Beta-glucosidase

UFGT

UDP-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase

DFR

Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase

F3H

Flavonoid 3-hydroxylase

PAL

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase

CHI

Chalcone isomerase

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by Modern and Key Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Shanxi Province (no. 2016ZD0109); Breeding of New Early Maturing Hawthorn Varieties (no. 201703D221014-1); Shanxi Youth Talent Support Program (2018); Shanxi Province Outstanding Young Academic Leaders (2017); and Program for the Top Young Innovative Talents of Shanxi Agricultural University (no. TYIT201401).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Ji
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Wei Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rong-Chen Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xiao-Bo Jiao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kai Han
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhong-Yi Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mei-Ying Gao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rui Ren
    • 2
    • 4
  • Xiu-Juan Fan
    • 5
  • Ming-Xia Yang
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.College of HorticultureShanxi Agricultural UniversityTaiguChina
  2. 2.Province Key Laboratory of Fruit Germplasm Development and UtilizationTaiyuanChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess PlateauMinistry of AgricultureTaiyuanChina
  4. 4.Pomology InstituteShanxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesTaiguChina
  5. 5.Shanxi Forestry Seedling Management StationTaiyuanChina

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