Plant Biotechnology Reports

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 239–243 | Cite as

ISSR marker-assisted selection of male and female plants in a promising dioecious crop: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)

  • Kuldeep Sharma
  • Veena Agrawal
  • Sarika Gupta
  • Ravindra Kumar
  • Manoj Prasad
Original Article


Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider, a multipurpose and monogeneric dioecious shrub from arid zones, has emerged as a cash crop all over the globe. Its seed propagation poses severe problems due to its male-biased population: the male:female ratio is 5:1. Investigations have been carried out to generate a sex-specific Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker for the early detection of male and female plants. Of the 42 primers analysed with a bulk sample of pooled male DNA and a bulk sample of pooled female DNA, only one primer, UBC-807, produced a unique ~1,200 base-pair fragment in the male DNA. To validate this observation, this primer was re-tested with individual male and female samples from eight cultivars. A similar unique ~1,200 bp fragment was present in the male individuals of all eight cultivars and completely absent in the female individuals tested. This is the first report of the use of ISSR markers to ascertain sex in physiologically mature S. chinensis plants.


Dioecious ISSR marker Simmondsiachinensis 


  1. Agrawal V, Prakash S, Gupta SC (1999) Differential hormonal requirements for clonal propagation of male and female jojoba plants. In: Altman A, Ziv M, Izhar S (eds) Current science and biotechnology in agriculture: plant biotechnology and in vitro biology in the 21st century. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 23–26Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal V, Prakash S, Gupta SC (2002) Effective protocol for in vitro shoot production through nodal explants of Simmondsia chinensis. Biol Plant 45:449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal V, Sharma K, Gupta S, Kumar R, Prasad M (2007) Identification of sex in Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) using RAPD markers. Plant Biotechnol Rep 1:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benzioni A (1992) Flower bud dormancy: ABA concentration and survival during frost of jojoba genotype under water stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 117:976–980Google Scholar
  5. Blaszezyk L, Tyrka M, Chelkowski J (2005) PstIAFLP based marker for leaf rust resistance genes in common wheat. J Appl Genet 46:357–364Google Scholar
  6. Chaves-Bedoya G, Nunenz V (2007) A SCAR marker for the sex types determination in Colombian genotypes of Carica papaya. Euphytica 153:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chowdhury MA, Vandenberg B, Warkentin T (2002) Cultivar identification and genetic relationship among selected breeding lines and cultivars in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica 127:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Culley TM, Wolfe AD (2000) Population genetic structure of the cleistogamous plant species Viola pubescens Aiton (Violaceae), as indicated by allozyme and ISSR molecular markers. Heredity 86:545–556Google Scholar
  9. Danilova TV, Karlov GI (2006) Application of inters simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism for detection of sex-specific molecular markers in hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Euphytica 151:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Droogenbroeck BV, Kyndt T, Maertens I, Romeijn-Peeters E, Scheldeman X, Romero-Motochi JP, Damme PV, Goetghebeur P, Gheysen G (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas (Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP. Theor Appl Genet 108:1473–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farinho M, Coelho P, Carlier J, Svetleva D, Monteiro A, Leitao J (2004) Mapping of a locus for adult plant resistance to downy mildew in broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. Italica). Theor Appl Genet 109:1392–1398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ganeshaiah KN, Ravishankar KV, Anand L, Shibu MP, Shaanker U (2000) Identification of sexspecific DNA markers in the dioecious tree, nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Plant Genet Resour Newsl 121:59–61Google Scholar
  13. Gangopadhyay G, Roy SK, Ghose K, Poddar R, Bandyopadhyay T, Basu D, Mukherjee KK (2007) Sex detection of Carica papaya and Cycas circinalis in pre-flowering stage by ISSR and RAPD. Curr Sci 92:524–526Google Scholar
  14. Gentry HS (1958) The natural history of Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis and its culture aspects. Econ Bot 12:261–295Google Scholar
  15. Goulăo L, Oliveira CM (2001) Molecular characterization of cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) using microsatellite (SSR and ISSR) markers. Euphytica 122:81–89Google Scholar
  16. Joshi P, Dhawan V (2007) Assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated Swertia chirayita plantlets by ISSR marker assay. Biol Plant 5:22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kremer A, Caron H, Cavers S, Colpaert N, Gheysen G, Gribel R, Lemes M, Lowe AJ, Margis R, Navarro C, Salgueiro F (2005) Monitoring genetic diversity in tropical trees with multilocus dominant markers. Heredity 95:274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mandolino G, Carboni A, Forapani S (1999) Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 98:86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meyer W, Michell TG, Freedman EZ, Vilgalys R (1993) Hybridization probes for conventional DNA fingerprinting used as single primers in polymerase chain reaction to distinguish strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Biol 31:2274–2280Google Scholar
  20. Michelmore R, Paran I, Keselli V (1991) Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulk segregante analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:9828–9832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morgan RN, Wilson JP, Hanna WW, Ozias-Akins P (1998) Molecular markers for rust and pyricularia leaf spot disease resistance in pearl millet. Theor Appl Genet 96:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nagaoka T, Ogihara Y (1997) Applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theor Appl Genet 94:597–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Parasnis AS, Ramakrishna W, Chowdari KV, Gupta VS, Ranjekar PK (1999) Microsatellite (GATA)n reveals sex specific differences in Papaya. Theor Appl Genet 99:1047–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parsons BJ, Newbury HJ, Jackson MT, Ford-Lloyd BV (1997) Contrasting genetic diversity relationships are revealed in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using different marker types. Mol Breeding 3:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Perez de Castro A, Blanca JM, Diez MJ, Vinals FN (2007) Identification of a CAPS marker tightly linked to the tomato leaf curl disease resistance gene Ty-1 in tomato. Eur J Plant Pathol 117:347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prakash S, Van Staden J (2006) Sex identification in Encephalartos natalensis (Dyer and Verdoorn) using RAPD markers. Euphytica 152:197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prakash S, Agrawal V, Gupta SC (2003) Influence of some adjuvants on in vitro clonal propagation of male and female jojoba plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ray T, Dutta I, Saha P, Das S, Roy SC (2006) Genetic stability of three economically important micropropagated banana (Musa spp.) cultivars of lower Indo- Gangatic plains, as assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 85:11–21Google Scholar
  29. Renner SS, Ricklefs RE (1995) Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. Am J Bot 82:596–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saghai-Maroof MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphism in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:8014–8018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tsumura Y, Ohba K, Strauss SH (1996) Diversity and inheritance of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugi (Cryptomeria japonica). Theor Appl Genet 92:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Urasaki N, Tokumoto M, Tarora K, Ban Y, Kayano T, Tanaka H, Oku H, Chinen I, Terauchi R (2002) A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya (Carica papaya L.). Theor Appl Genet 104:281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vijayan K, Awasthi AK, Srivastava PP, Saratchandra B (2004) Genetic analysis of Indian mulberry varieties through molecular markers. Hereditas 141:8–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Westergaard M (1958) The mechanism of sex determination in dioecious flowering plants. Adv Genet 9:217–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Williams JGK, Rubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski A, Tingey SV (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:6531–6535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu WJ, Wang BW, Cui KM (2004) RAPD and SCAR markers linked to sex determination in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Euphytica 136:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A, Labuda D (1994) Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification. Genomics 94:176–183Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology and Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuldeep Sharma
    • 1
  • Veena Agrawal
    • 1
  • Sarika Gupta
    • 2
  • Ravindra Kumar
    • 1
  • Manoj Prasad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.National Institute for Plant Genome Research (NIPGR)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations