Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 505–512 | Cite as

Control of a wastewater treatment plant using relay auto-tuning

  • Saxena Nikita
  • Moonyong LeeEmail author
Rapid Communication


Efficient performance of a wastewater treatment plant largely depends on optimal process control. Owing to their complexity and nonlinearity, such processes are difficult to control. In this study, relay auto tuning method is analyzed to design of a proportional integral derivative controller for the activated sludge biological process. The process is estimated as a first-order process with time delay. The key control variable in wastewater treatment is the concentration of dissolved oxygen during the aeration process. The influence of higher order harmonics on the system critical values is considered during the design using preload relay and a modified two-step relay. The system performance was evaluated for both servo and regulatory mechanisms. In addition, the designed controller was tested in the presence of noise for the robustness analysis.


ANAMMOX Relay Auto-tuning Activated sludge process PID control DO control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. Tchamna and M. Lee, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 34, 3067 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Tchamna and M. Lee, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 34, 961 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Q. G. Wang, T. H. Lee and C. Lin, Springer, London (2003).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. C. Yu, Springer, London (2006).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. P. Atherton, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45, 4075 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Majhi, Cengage Learning, Delhi (2009).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. H. Jeon, Y. J. Cheon, J. Lee and S. W. Sung, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 28, 2116 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Liu, Q.-G. Wang and H.-P. Huang, J. Process Control, 23, 1597 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    I. Boiko, Springer, London (2013).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Chidambaram and S. Vivek, Cambridge University Press, New Delhi (2014).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. H. Shen, H. D. Yu and C. C. Yu, Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, 1187 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. P. Huang and C.C. Chen, SAMS, 29, 163 (1997).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. Ramakrishnan and M. Chidambaram, Comput. Chem. Eng., 27, 1779 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. S. Kim, J. Byeon, S. W. Sung, J. Lee, W. Ryoo and T. F. Edgar, Int. J. of Cont., Automation, and Systs., 9, 294 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Baruah, S. Majhi and C. Mahanta, 2016 Indian Control Conference (ICC), 450 (2016).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Akay, S. Ertunc, H. Boyacioglu, H. Hapoglu and M. Alpbaz, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 28, 837 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. A. Brdys and K. Konarzcak, IFAC Proceedings, 34, 539 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. A. Brdys and J. Diaz-Maiquez, IFAC Proceedings, 35, 35 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Rosen, A Chemometric Approach to Process Monitoring and Control-with Applications to wastewater Treatment Operation, Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation, Lund University, Sweden (2001).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Krause, K. Böcker and J. Londong, Water Sci. Technol., 45(4-5), 413 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Sanchez and M.R. Katebi, 2003 European Control Conference (ECC), 2424 (2003).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. Chotkowski, M. A. Brdys and K. Konarczak, Int. J. Syst. Sci., 36(12), 727 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Gerkšič, D. Vrečko and N. Hvala, Water Sci. Technol., 53, 283 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Holenda, Development of Modeling, Control and Optimization Tools for the Activated Sludge Process, Doctorate School of Chemical Engineering, University of Pannonia, Hungary (2007).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Tzoneva, AFRICON 2007, 1 (2007).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Piotrowski, M. A. Brdys, K. Konarczak, K. Duzinkiewicz and W. Chotkowski, Control Eng. Pract., 16, 114 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Han, M. A. Brdys and R. Piotrowski, IFAC Proceedings, 41, 13587 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Thunberg, A.-M. Sundin and B. Carlsson, 10th IWA Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation (2009).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. G. Ziegler and N. B. Nichols, Trans. ASME, 64, 759 (1942).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. J. Åström and T. Hägglund, Automatica, 20, 645 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. L. Luyben, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40, 4391 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. Li, E. Eskinat and W. L. Luyben, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 30, 1530 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. H. Lee, Q. G. Wang and K. K. Tan, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 3, 330 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. W. Sung, J. H. Park and I. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 34, 4133 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. W. Sung and I. B. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 5526 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Friman and K. V. Waller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 2662 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Srinivasan and M. Chidambaram, Chem. Biochem. Eng., Q18, 249 (2004).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. K. Tan, T. H. Lee, S. Huang, K. Y. Chua and R. Ferdous, J. Process Control, 16, 445 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. J. Cheol, J. Lee, S. W. Sung and D. H. Lee, J. Process Control, 19, 353 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. H. Jeon, Y. J. Cheon, J. S. Kim, J. Lee and S. W. Sung, J. Process Control, 20, 228 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. K. Vangsgaard, M. Mauricio Iglesias, K. Gernaey, B. F. Smets and G. Sin, Bioresour. Technol., 123, 230 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. R. Sundaresan, C. C. Prasad and P. R. Krishnaswamy, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Development, 17, 237 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O’Dwyer, Imperial College Press (2009).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanKorea

Personalised recommendations