Advertisement

The role of viscoelastic damping on retrofitting seismic performance of asymmetric reinforced concrete structures

  • 7 Accesses

Abstract

The primary purpose of this research is to improve the seismic response of a complex asymmetric tall structure using viscoelastic (VE) dampers. Asymmetric structures have detrimental effects on the seismic performance because such structures create abrupt changes in the stiffness or strength that may lead to undesirable stress concentrations at weak locations. Structural control devices are one of the effective ways to reduce seismic impacts, particularly in asymmetric structures. For passive vibration control of structures, VE dampers are considered among the most preferred devices for energy dissipation. Therefore, in this research, VE dampers are implemented at strategic locations in a realistic case study structure to increase the level of distributed damping without occupying significant architectural space and reducing earthquake vibrations in terms of story displacements (drifts) and other design forces. It has been concluded that the seismic response of the considered structure retrofitted with supplemental VE dampers corresponded well in controlling the displacement demands. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that seismic response in terms of interstory drifts was effectively mitigated with supplemental damping when added up to a certain level. Exceeding the supplemental damping from this level did not contribute to additional mitigation of the seismic response of the considered structure. In addition, it was found that the supplemental damping increased the total acceleration of the considered structure at all floor levels, which indicates that for irregular tall structures of this type, VE dampers were only a good retrofitting measure for earthquake induced interstory deformations and their use may not be suitable for acceleration sensitive structures. Overall, the research findings demonstrate how seismic hazards to these types of structures can be reduced by introducing additional damping into the structure.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

References

  1. Aiken ID, Nims DK, Whittaker AS, et al. (1993), “Testing of Passive Energy Dissipation Systems,” Earthquake Spectra, 9: 335–370.

  2. Alam Z, Zhang C and Samali B (2016), “Response Uncertainty Under Varying Orientations of Ground Motions,” Mechanics of Structures and Materials XXIV. CRC Press, 686–691.

  3. Anagnostopoulos S, Kyrkos M and Stathopoulos K (2015), “Earthquake Induced Torsion in Buildings: Critical Review and State of the Art,” Earthquakes and Structures, 8: 305–377.

  4. Asano M, Masahiko H and Yamamoto M (2000), “The Experimental Study on Viscoelastic Material Dampers and the Formulation of Analytical Model,” Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.

  5. ASCE (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures: American Society of Civil Engineers.

  6. BCP (2007), Building Code of Pakistan, Seismic Provision, SP-2007, Ministry of Housing and Works, Government of Islamic Republic of Pakistan Islamabad, Pakistan.

  7. Chang TS and Singh MP (2002), “Seismic Analysis of Structures with a Fractional Derivative Model of Viscoelastic Dampers,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 1: 251–260.

  8. Chopra AK and Goel RK (1991), “Evaluation of Torsional Provisions in Seismic Codes,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 117: 3762–3782.

  9. Constantinou MC, Soong TT and Dargush GF (1998), “Passive Energy Dissipation Systems for Structural Design and Retrofit,” MCEER-98-MN01, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, NY.

  10. Dempsey K and Tso W (1982), “An Alternative Path to Seismic Torsional Provisions,” International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 1: 3–10.

  11. Dutta S and Das P (2002a), “Inelastic Seismic Response of Code-Designed Reinforced Concrete Asymmetric Buildings with Strength Degradation,” Engineering Structures, 24: 1295–1314.

  12. Dutta S and Das P (2002b), “Validity and Applicability of Two Simple Hysteresis Models to Assess Progressive Seismic Damage in R/C Asymmetric Buildings,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, 257: 753–777.

  13. Faggella M, Gigliotti R, Mezzacapo G, et al. (2018), “Graphic Dynamic Prediction of Polarized Earthquake Incidence Response for Plan-Irregular Single Story Buildings,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 1–31.

  14. Fajfar P, Marušić D and Peruš I (2005), “Torsional Effects in the Pushover-Based Seismic Analysis of Buildings,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 9: 831–854.

  15. FEMA (1997), “NEHRP Commentary on the Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings,” Provisions (FEMA 274), Washington, DC.

  16. Fu Y and Kasai K (1998), “Comparative Study of Frames Using Viscoelastic and Viscous Dampers,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 124: 513–522.

  17. Garcia M, Juan C and Almazán JL (2007), “Torsional Balance of Plan Asymmetric Structures with Viscoelastic Dampers,” Engineering Structures, 29: 914–932.

  18. Goel RK and Chopra AK (1990), “Inelastic Seismic Response of One-Story, Asymmetric-Plan Systems: Effects of Stiffness and Strength Distribution,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 19: 949–970.

  19. Gong S and Zhou Y (2017), “Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation on a New Type of Viscoelastic Damper with Strong Nonlinear Characteristics,” Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 24: e1897.

  20. Gong S, Zhou Y and Ge P (2017), “Seismic Analysis for Tall and Irregular Temple Buildings: A Case Study of Strong Nonlinear Viscoelastic Dampers,” The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 26: e1352.

  21. Habibullah A and Wilson E (1996), SAP2000 User’s Manual, Computers & Structures, Inc.

  22. Hejal R and Chopra AK (1989), “Earthquake Response of Torsionally Coupled, Frame Buildings,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 115: 834–851.

  23. Humar J and Kumar P (1998a), “Torsional Motion of Buildings During Earthquakes, I. Elastic Response,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 25: 898–916.

  24. Humar J and Kumar P (1998b), “Torsional Motion of Buildings During Earthquakes, II. Inelastic Response,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 25: 917–934.

  25. Hwang SL (1999), “Dampers for Internal Applications and Articles Damped Therewith,” Google Patents.

  26. Kan CL and Chopra AK (1981a), “Simple Model for Earthquake Response Studies of Torsionally Coupled Buildings,” Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 107: 935–951.

  27. Kan CL and Chopra AK (1981b), “Torsional Coupling and Earthquake Response of Simple Elastic and Inelastic Systems, Journal of the Structural Division, 107: 1569–1588.

  28. Karavasilis T, Sause R and Ricles J (2010), “Design of Steel Buildings for Earthquake Conditions Using Next- Generation Elastomeric Dampers,” Structures Congress 2010, 1417–1427.

  29. Kim J and Bang S (2002), “Optimum Distribution of Added Viscoelastic Dampers for Mitigation of Torsional Responses of Plan-Wise Asymmetric Structures,” Engineering Structures, 24: 1257–1269.

  30. Kim J and Choi H (2006), “Displacement-Based Design of Supplemental Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of a Framed Structure,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 132: 873–883.

  31. Kun Y, Li L and Jiaxiang T (2003), “Stochastic Seismic Response of Structures with Added Viscoelastic Dampers Modeled by Fractional Derivative,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 2: 133–139.

  32. Labise CC, Rodgers GW, MacRae GA, et al. (2012), “Viscous and Hysteretic Damping-Impact of Capacity Design Violation in Augmented Structural Systems,” Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 45(1): 23–30. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.45.1.23-30.

  33. Lee KS (2003), “Seismic Behavior of Structures with Dampers Made from Ultra High Damping Natural Rubber,” Lehigh University.

  34. Lobo R, Bracci JM, Shen K, et al. (1993), “Inelastic Response of R/C Structures with Viscoelastic Braces,” Earthquake Spectra, 9: 419–446.

  35. Marusšić D and Fajfar P (2005), “On the Inelastic Seismic Response of Asymmetric Buildings under Bi-Axial Excitation,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 34: 943–963.

  36. Negro P, Mola E and Gutierrez E (2005), “Application of the Karhunen-Loeve Method to the Analysis of the Results of a PsD Test on a Torsionally Unbalanced Three-Story Building,” Proceedings of the 4th European Workshop on the Seismic Behavior of Irregular and Complex Structures, CD ROM. Thessaloniki.

  37. Pant DR, Montgomery M and Christopoulos C (2018), “Full-Scale Testing of a Viscoelastic Coupling Damper for High-Rise Building Applications and Comparative Evaluation of Different Numerical Models,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 145: 04018242.

  38. Rafezy B and Howson W (2009), “Coupled Lateral–Torsional Frequencies of Asymmetric, Three- Dimensional Structures Comprising Shear-Wall and Core Assemblies with Stepwise Variable Cross-Section,” Engineering Structures, 31: 1903–1915.

  39. Rafezy B, Zare A and Howson WP (2007), “Coupled Lateral–Torsional Frequencies of Asymmetric, Three-Dimensional Frame Structures,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, 44: 128–144.

  40. Seleemah A and Constantinou MC (1997), Investigation of Seismic Response of Buildings with Linear and Nonlinear Fluid Viscous Dampers: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.

  41. Stathi CG, Bakas NP, Lagaros ND, et al. (2015), “Ratio of Torsion (ROT): An Index for Assessing the Global Induced Torsion in Plan Irregular Buildings,” Earthquakes and Structures, 9(1): 145–71.

  42. Sun L, Hao H, Zhang B, et al. (2016), “Strain Transfer Analysis of Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Strain Sensor,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 44: 2312–2320.

  43. Sun L, Li C, Li J, et al. (2017), “Strain Transfer Analysis of a Clamped Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor, Applied Sciences, 7: 188.

  44. Sun L, Li H.-N, Ren L, et al. (2007), “Dynamic Response Measurement of Off shore Platform Model by FBG Sensors,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 136: 572–579.

  45. Sun L, Liang D, Gao Q, et al. (2013), “Analysis on Factors Affecting the Self-Repair Capability of SMA Wire Concrete Beam,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2013: 6.

  46. Symans M, Charney F, Whittaker A, et al. (2008), “Energy Dissipation Systems for Seismic Applications: Current Practice and Recent Developments,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 134: 3–21.

  47. Tchamo JM and Zhou Y (2018), “An Alternative Practical Design Method for Structures with Viscoelastic Dampers,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 17: 459–473.

  48. Tsai MH and Chang KC (2002), “Higher-Mode Effect on the Seismic Responses of Buildings with Viscoelastic Dampers,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 1: 119–129.

  49. Tso W and Zhu T (1992), “Design of Torsionally Unbalanced Structural Systems Based on Code Provisions I: Ductility Demand,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 21: 609–627.

  50. Uang CM and Bertero VV (1990), “Evaluation of Seismic Energy in Structures,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 19: 77–90.

  51. Wang SJ, Chiu IC, Yu CH, et al. (2018), “Experimental and Analytical Study on Design Performance of Full- Scale Viscoelastic Dampers,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 17: 693–706.

  52. Wilson EL (2002), Three-Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of Structures: A Physical Approach with Emphasis on Earthquake Engineering, Berkeley, CA: Computers and Structures.

  53. Xu ZD, Shen YP and Zhao HT (2003), “A Synthetic Optimization Analysis Method on Structures with Viscoelastic Dampers,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 23: 683–689.

  54. Yang Z and Lam ES (2014), “Dynamic Responses of Two Buildings Connected by Viscoelastic Dampers under Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 13: 137–150.

  55. Zhang C (2014), “Control Force Characteristics of Different Control Strategies for the Wind-Excited 76-Story Benchmark Building Structure,” Advances in Structural Engineering, 17: 543–559.

  56. Zhang C, Alam Z and Samali B (2016), “Evaluating Contradictory Relationship Between Floor Rotation and Torsional Irregularity Coefficient under Varying Orientations of Ground Motion,” Earthquakes and Structures, 11: 1027–1041.

  57. Zhang C, Alam Z, Sun L, et al. (2018), “Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor-Based Damage Response Monitoring of an Asymmetric Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Structure Subjected to Progressive Seismic Loads,” Structural Control and Health Monitoring: e2307.

  58. Zhang C, Li J, Li H, et al. (2011), “Preliminary Numerical Study on TRID System for Flutter Vibration Control of Bridge Structure,” Procedia Engineering, 14: 2796–2806.

  59. Zhang C and Ou J (2008), “Control Strategies and Experimental Verifications of the Electromagnetic Mass Damper System for Structural Vibration Control,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 7: 181–192.

  60. Zhang C and Ou J (2015), “Modeling and Dynamical Performance of the Electromagnetic Mass Driver System for Structural Vibration Control,” Engineering Structures, 82: 93–103.

  61. Zhao X, Wang S, Du D, et al. (2017), “Simplified Analysis of Frame Structures with Viscoelastic Dampers Considering the Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 16: 199–217.

  62. Zhou Y, Lu X, Weng D, et al. (2012), “A Practical Design Method for Reinforced Concrete Structures with Viscous Dampers,” Engineering Structures, 39: 187–198.

  63. Zhu T and Tso W (1992), “Design of Torsionally Unbalanced Structural Systems Based on Code Provisions II: Strength Distribution,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 21: 629–644.

Download references

Acknowledgement

The research is financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2017YFC0703603), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51678322), the Taishan Scholar Priority Discipline Talent Group program funded by the Shandong Province and the first-class discipline project funded by the Education Department of Shandong Province.

Author information

Correspondence to Chunwei Zhang.

Additional information

Supported by: Ministry of Science and Technology of China under Grant No. 2017YFC0703603, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 51678322

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alam, Z., Zhang, C. & Samali, B. The role of viscoelastic damping on retrofitting seismic performance of asymmetric reinforced concrete structures. Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib. 19, 223–237 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-020-0558-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • viscoelastic dampers
  • seismic analysis
  • asymmetric structure
  • nonlinear modal time history analysis