Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 161–177 | Cite as

Estimation of drift limits for different seismic damage states of RC frame staging in elevated water tanks using Park and Ang damage index

  • Suraj O. Lakhade
  • Ratnesh KumarEmail author
  • O. R. Jaiswal


Damage to elevated water tanks in past earthquakes can be attributed to the poor performance of their supporting frame staging. In order to ascertain the performance of these elevated water tanks, it is crucial to categorize the damage in quantifiable damage states. Among various parameters to quantify the damage states, the top drift of frame staging can be conveniently correlated to the different damage levels. In literature, drift limits corresponding to different damage states of the frame staging of the elevated water tank are not available. In the present study, drift limits for RC frame staging in elevated water tanks corresponding to different seismic damage states have been proposed. Various damage states of the elevated water tank have been determined using the Park and Ang damage index. The Park and Ang damage index utilizes results of both pushover analysis and incremental dynamic analysis. Twelve models of elevated water tanks have been developed considering variation in staging height and tank capacity. Incremental dynamic analysis has been performed using the suite of twelve actual earthquake ground motions. Based on the regression analysis between damage indexes and drift, limiting drift values for each damage state are proposed.


elevated water tank frame staging damage states drift limit 3D modelling incremental dynamic analysis pushover analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adhikary S and Singh Y (2019), “Effect of Site Amplification on Inelastic Seismic Response,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 18(3): 535–554. Scholar
  2. Aghagholizadeh M and Massumi A (2016), “A New Method to Assess Damage to RCMRFs from Period Elongation and Park-Ang Damage Index Using IDA,” International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, 8(3): 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASCE 41-06 (2007), Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, Virginia, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ASCE 7 (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE-7), Virginia, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers.Google Scholar
  5. Astaneh A and Ashtiany MG (1990), “The Manjil, Iran, Earthquake of June 1990,” Report No. 24(12), Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, California, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Banon H and Veneziano D (1982), “Seismic Safety of Reinforced Concrete Members and Structures,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 10(2): 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banon H, Biggs JM and Irvine HM (1981), “Seismic Damage in Reinforced Concrete Frames,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 107(9): 1713–1729.Google Scholar
  8. Barbat AH, Pujades LG and Lantada N (2006), “Performance of Buildings under Earthquakes in Barcelona, Spain,” Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 21(3): 573–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bassam A, Iranmanesh A and Ansari F (2011), “A Simple Quantitative Approach for Post Earthquake Damage Assessment of Flexure Dominant Reinforced Concrete Bridges,” Engineering Structures, 33(12): 3218–3225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bazzurro P and Cornell CA (1994), “Seismic Hazard Analysis of Nonlinear Structures. I: Methodology,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 120(11): 3320–3344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bracci JM, Reinhorn AM, Mander JB, et al. (1989), “Deterministic Model for Seismic Damage Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Technical Report NCEER 89-0033, State University of New York at Buffalo.Google Scholar
  12. CED38(7811)P (2011), Criteria for Design of RCC Staging for Overhead Water Tanks, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian standards <>Google Scholar
  13. Chung YS, Meyer C and Shinozuka M (1989), “Modeling of Concrete Damage,” ACI Structural Journal, 86(3): 259–271.Google Scholar
  14. Colombo A and Negro P (2005), “A Damage Index of Generalised Applicability,” Engineering Structures, 27(8): 1164–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DiPasquale E and Cakmak AS (1987), “Detection and Assessment of Seismic Structural Damage,” Technical Report NCEER 87-00 15, State University of New York at Buffalo.Google Scholar
  16. DiPasquale E and Cakmak AS (1990), “Seismic Damage Assessment Using Linear Models,” Soil Dynamics & Earthquake Engineering, 9(4): 194–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DiPasquale E, Ju J-W, Askar A, et al. (1990), “Relation Between Global Damage Indices and Local Stiffness Degradation,” Journa1 of Structura1 Engineering, 16(5): 1440–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dumova-Jovanoska E (2000), “Fragility Curves for Reinforced Concrete Structures in Skopje (Macedonia) Region,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19(6): 455–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dymiotis C, Kappos AJ and Chryssanthopoulos MK (1999), “Seismic Reliability of RC Frames with Uncertain Drift and Member Capacity,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 125(9): 1038–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. EN 1998-1:2004 (2004), Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance. Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings, Brussels, Belgium: European Committee for Standardization.Google Scholar
  21. Erberik MA and Elnashai AS (2004), “Fragility Analysis of Flat-Slab Structures,” Engineering Structures, 26(7): 937–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fardis M, Papailia A and Tsionis G (2012), “Seismic Fragility of RC Framed and Wall-Frame Buildings Designed to the EN-Eurocodes,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 10: 1767–1793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FEMA P695 (2009), Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors, Washington, DC, USA: Federal Emergency Management Agency.Google Scholar
  24. Ghosh S, Datta D and Katakdhond AA (2011), “Estimation of the Park-Ang Damage Index for Planar Multi-Storey Frames Using Equivalent Single-Degree Systems,” Engineering Structures, 33(9): 2509–2524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giovinazzi S (2005), “The Vulnerability Assessment and the Damage Scenario in Seismic Risk Analysis,” Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University Carolo-Wilhelmina at Braunschweig, Germany and University of Florence, Florence, Italy.Google Scholar
  26. Gosain NK, Brown RH and Jersa JO (1977), “Shear Requirements for Load Reversals on RC Members,” Journal of the Structural Division, 103(7): 1461–1476.Google Scholar
  27. Hwang TH (1982), “Effects of Variation in Load History on Cyclic Response of Concrete Flexural Members,” PhD Thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Illinois.Google Scholar
  28. IS 13920 (2016), Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces- Code of Practice, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standard.Google Scholar
  29. IS 1893 (Part 1) (2016), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures: Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standard.Google Scholar
  30. IS 1893 (Part 2) (2014), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 2 Liquid Retaining Tanks, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standard.Google Scholar
  31. IS 456 (2000), Plain and Reinforced Concrete-Code of Practice, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standards.Google Scholar
  32. Jain SK, Murty CVR, Chandak N, et al. (1994), “The September 29, 1993, m6.4 Killari, Maharashtra Earthquake in Central India,” Report No. 28(1), Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, California, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Jiang HJ, Chen LZ and Chen Q (2011), “Seismic Damage Assessment and Performance Levels of Reinforced Concrete Members,” Procedia engineering, 14: 939–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kappos AJ (1997), “Seismic Damage Indices for RC Buildings: Evaluation of Concepts and Procedures,” Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 1(1): 78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kappos AJ, Panagopoulos G, Panagiotopoulos C and Penelis G (2006), “A Hybrid Method for the Vulnerability Assessment of R/C and URM Buildings,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 4(4): 391–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kircil, MS and Polat Z (2006), “Fragility Analysis of Mid-Rise R/C Frame Buildings,” Engineering Structures, 28(9): 1335–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lakhade SO, Kumar R and Jaiswal OR (2017), “Estimation of Response Reduction Factor of RC Frame Staging in Elevated Water Tanks Using Nonlinear Static Procedure,” Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 62(2): 209–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu Jingbo, Tan Hui, Bao Xin, Wang Dongyang and Li Shutao (2019), “Seismic Wave Input Method for Three-Dimensional Soil-Structure Dynamic Interaction Analysis Based on the Substructure of Artificial Boundaries” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 18(4): 747–758. Scholar
  39. Lybas L and Sozen MA (1977), “Effect of Beam Strength & Stiffness on Dynamic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Report SRS, No. 444, University of Illinois, Urbana.Google Scholar
  40. Mander JB Priestley MJ and Park R (1988), “Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 114(8): 1804–1826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mehanny S and Deierlein G (2001), “Seismic Damage and Collapse Assessment of Composite Moment Frames,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 127(9): 1045–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mehrain M (1990), “Reconnaissance Report on the Northern Iran Earthquake of June 21, 1990,” Research Report No. NCEER-90-0017, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  43. Mizuhata K and Maeda Y (1989), “Study on Evaluation of Cumulative Damage Earthquake Response of Structures Based on Computer-Actuator on-Line Test,” Proceedings 9th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vol. IV, Tokyo, Maruzen, pp. 83–88.Google Scholar
  44. Mosalam KM, Ayala G, White RN and Roth C (1997), “Seismic Fragility of LRC Frames with and without Masonry Infill Walls,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 1(4): 693–719.Google Scholar
  45. Newmark NM and Rosenblueth E (1971), Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  46. Niu Ditao and Ren Lijie (1996), “A Modified Seismic Damage Model with Double Variables for Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 16: 44–55.Google Scholar
  47. Park R (1986), “Ductile Design Approach for Reinforced Concrete Frames,” Earthquake Spectra, 2(3): 565–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Park Y and Ang A (1985), “Mechanistic Seismic Damage Model for Reinforced Concrete,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 111(4): 722–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. PEER (2006), PEER NGA Database, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California <>Google Scholar
  50. Pejovic J and Jankovic S (2016), “Seismic Fragility Assessment for Reinforced Concrete High-Rise Buildings in Southern Euro-Mediterranean Zone,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(1): 185–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Polese M, Verderame GM, Mariniello C, Iervolino I and Manfredi G (2008), “Vulnerability Analysis for Gravity Load Designed RC Buildings in Naples - Italy,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 12(S2): 234–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Powell GH and Allahabadi R (1988), “Seismic Damage Prediction by Deterministic Methods: Concept and procedure,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 16(5): 719–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rai DC (2002), “Elevated tanks,” Earthquake Spectra, 18(S1): 279–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rai DC (2003), “Performance of Elevated Tanks in mw 7.7 Bhuj Earthquake of January 26th, 2001,” Journal of Earth System Science, 112(3): 421–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rajabi R, Barghi M, and Rajabi R (2012), “Investigation of Park-Ang Damage Index Model for Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns,” The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 22(17): 1350–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roufaiel MS and Meyer C (1987), “Analytical Modeling of Hysteretic Behavior of R/C Frames,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 113(3): 429–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Saffarini HS (2000), “Ground Motion Characteristics of the November 1995 Aqaba Earthquake,” Eng. Struct., 22(4): 343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. SAP2000 (2004), Integrated Software for Structural Analysis & Design, Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
  59. Shome N (1999), “Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis of Nonlinear Structures,” PhD Thesis, Stanford University, California, USA.Google Scholar
  60. Singhal A and Kiremidjian AS (1995), “Method for Developing Motion Damage Relationships for Reinforced Concrete Frames,” Technical Report NCEER 95-0008, State University of New York at Buffalo.Google Scholar
  61. Sinha R and Shiradhonkar SR (2012), “Seismic Damage Index for Classification of Structural Damage - Closing the Loop,” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisboa.Google Scholar
  62. Steinbrugge KV and Flores R (1963), “The Chilean Earthquakes of May, 1960: a Structural Engineering Viewpoint,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 53(2): 225–307.Google Scholar
  63. Stephens JE and Yao JT (1987), “Damage Assessment Using Response Measurements,” Journal of Structural Engineering, 113(4): 787–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vamvatsikos D and Cornell CA (2002), “Incremental Dynamic Analysis,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 31(3): 491–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang ML and Shah SP (1987), “Reinforced Concrete Hysteresis Model Based on the Damage Concept,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 15(8): 993–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yazdannejad K and Yazdani A (2018), “Bayesian Updating of the Park-Ang Damage Index for RC Frame Buildings under Near-Fault Ground Motions,” Scientia Iranica, 25(2): 606–616.Google Scholar
  67. Yüksel E and Sürmeli M (2010), “Failure Analysis of One-Story Precast Structures for Near-Fault and Far- Fault Strong Ground Motions,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 8(4): 937–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zameeruddin M and Sangle KK (2016), “Review on Recent Developments in the Performance-Based Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Structures, 6: 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suraj O. Lakhade
    • 1
  • Ratnesh Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • O. R. Jaiswal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied MechanicsVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations