Studies on Factors Influencing Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Plates Used in Artificial Reefs
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As a simplified model of artificial reefs, a series of plate models punched with square or circular openings are designed to investigate the effects of openings on the hydrodynamic characteristics of artificial reefs. The models are grouped by various opening numbers and opening-area ratios. They are physically tested in a water flume or used in the numerical simulation to obtain the drag force in the uniform flow with different speeds. The simulation results are found in good agreement with the experimental measurements. By the non-dimensional analysis, the drag coefficient specified to each model is achieved and the effects of openings are examined. It is found that the key factor affecting the drag coefficient is the open-area ratio. Generally, the drag coefficient is a linear function of the open area ratio with a minus slope. The empirical formulae for the square and circular openings respectively are deduced by means of the multiple regression analysis based on the measured and numerical data. They will be good references for the design of new artificial reefs. As a result of numerical simulation, the vorticity contours and pressure distribution are also presented in this work to better understand the hydrodynamic characteristics of different models.
Key wordsartificial reefs drag coefficient hydrodynamic characteristics model experiment
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The study is supported by Shandong Provincial Oceanic and Fishery Department (Ecological Simulation Test of the Offshore Area in Shandong Peninsula) and the Primary Research and Development Program of Shandong Province (Nos. 2016CYJS04A01 and 2017CXGC0107).
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