Nitrogen Budget in Recirculating Aquaculture and Water Exchange Systems for Culturing Litopenaeus vannamei
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In order to investigate the culture characteristics of two indoor intensive Litopenaeus vannamei farming modes, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and water exchange system (WES), this study was carried out to analyze the water quality and nitrogen budget including various forms of nitrogen, microorganism and chlorophyll-a. Nitrogen budget was calculated based on feed input, shrimp harvest, water quality and renewal rate, and collection of bottom mud. Input nitrogen retained in shrimp was 23.58% and 19.10% respectively for WES and RAS, and most of nitrogen waste retained in water and bottom mud. In addition, most of nitrogen in the water of WES was TAN (21.32%) and nitrite (15.30%), while in RAS was nitrate (25.97%), which means that more than 76% of ammonia and nitrite were removed. The effect of microalgae in RAS and WES was negligible. However, bacteria played a great role in the culture system considering the highest cultivable cultivable bacterial populations in RAS and WES were 1.03×1010 cfu mL−1 and 2.92×109 cfu mL−1, respectively. Meanwhile the proportion of bacteria in nitrogen budget was 29.61% and 24.61% in RAS and WES, respectively. RAS and WES could realize shrimp high stocking culture with water consuming rate of 1.25 m3 per kg shrimp and 3.89 m3 per kg shrimp, and power consuming rates of 3.60 kw h per kg shrimp and 2.51 kw h per kg shrimp, respectively. This study revealed the aquatic environment and nitrogen budget of intensive shrimp farming in detail, which provided the scientific basis for improving the industrial shrimp farming.
Key wordsRAS shrimp water quality nitrogen budget microorganism
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This study was supported by the China Agriculture Research System (No. CARS-47), the Taishan Industrial Leader Talent Project of Shandong Province (No. LJNY 2015002) and the Aoshan Innovation Project of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (No. 2015ASKJ02).We thank the manager and staff of the shrimp farm for providing experimental site, offering management data and the facilities.
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