Nitrogen Budget in Recirculating Aquaculture and Water Exchange Systems for Culturing Litopenaeus vannamei
- 72 Downloads
In order to investigate the culture characteristics of two indoor intensive Litopenaeus vannamei farming modes, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and water exchange system (WES), this study was carried out to analyze the water quality and nitrogen budget including various forms of nitrogen, microorganism and chlorophyll-a. Nitrogen budget was calculated based on feed input, shrimp harvest, water quality and renewal rate, and collection of bottom mud. Input nitrogen retained in shrimp was 23.58% and 19.10% respectively for WES and RAS, and most of nitrogen waste retained in water and bottom mud. In addition, most of nitrogen in the water of WES was TAN (21.32%) and nitrite (15.30%), while in RAS was nitrate (25.97%), which means that more than 76% of ammonia and nitrite were removed. The effect of microalgae in RAS and WES was negligible. However, bacteria played a great role in the culture system considering the highest cultivable cultivable bacterial populations in RAS and WES were 1.03×1010 cfu mL−1 and 2.92×109 cfu mL−1, respectively. Meanwhile the proportion of bacteria in nitrogen budget was 29.61% and 24.61% in RAS and WES, respectively. RAS and WES could realize shrimp high stocking culture with water consuming rate of 1.25 m3 per kg shrimp and 3.89 m3 per kg shrimp, and power consuming rates of 3.60 kw h per kg shrimp and 2.51 kw h per kg shrimp, respectively. This study revealed the aquatic environment and nitrogen budget of intensive shrimp farming in detail, which provided the scientific basis for improving the industrial shrimp farming.
Key wordsRAS shrimp water quality nitrogen budget microorganism
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This study was supported by the China Agriculture Research System (No. CARS-47), the Taishan Industrial Leader Talent Project of Shandong Province (No. LJNY 2015002) and the Aoshan Innovation Project of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (No. 2015ASKJ02).We thank the manager and staff of the shrimp farm for providing experimental site, offering management data and the facilities.
- Ai, Q., Mai, K., Zhang, W., Xu, W., Tan, B., Zhang, C., and Li, H., 2007. Effects of exogenous enzymes (phytase, non-starch polysaccharide enzyme) in diets on growth, feed utilization, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 147: 502–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- APHA, 1981. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. APHA American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Bendschneider, K., and Robinson, R. J., 1952. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrite in sea water. Journal of Marine Research, 2: 87–96.Google Scholar
- CFSY, 2016. China Fishery Statistical Yearbook. China Agriculture Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
- Chen, Y., Chen, K., and Hu, Y., 2006. Discussion on possible error for phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration analysis using hot-ethanol extraction method. Journal of Lake Sciences, 5: 550–552.Google Scholar
- Hobbie, J. E., Daley, R. J., and Jasper, S., 1977. Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 33: 1225–1228.Google Scholar
- Lee, S., and Fuhrman, J. A., 1987. Relationships between biovolume and biomass of naturally derived marine bacterioplankton. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53: 1298–1303.Google Scholar
- Loh, J. Y., 2017. The role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action: An aquaculture perspective. World Aquaculture, 19–23.Google Scholar
- Martins, C. I. M., Eding, E. H., Verdegem, M. C. J., Heinsbroek, L. T. N., Schneider, O., Blancheton, J. P., d’Orbcastel, E. R., and Verreth, J. A. J., 2010. New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: A perspective on environmental sustainability. Aquacultural Engineering, 43: 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthuwan, V., 1991. Nutrient budget and water quality in intensive marine shrimp culture ponds. Master thesis. Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.Google Scholar
- Oppenheimer, C. H., 1952. The growth and viability of sixtythree species of marine bacteria as influenced by hydrostatic pressure. Journal of Marine Research, 11: 10–18.Google Scholar
- Perez-Velazquez, M., Gonzalez-Felix, M. L., Gomez-Jimenez, S., Davis, D. A., and Miramontes-Higuera, N., 2008. Nitrogen budget for a low-salinity, zero-water exchange culture system: II. Evaluation of isonitrogenous feeding of various dietary protein levels to Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). Aquaculture Research, 39: 995–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosenthal, H., Castell, J., Chiba, K., Forster, J., Hilge, V., Hogendoorn, H., Mayo, R., Muir, J., Murray, K., and Petit, J., 1986. Flow-through and recirculation systems. EIFAeC, 100.Google Scholar