Advertisement

Journal of Ocean University of China

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 93–98 | Cite as

Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

  • Luo Zhi 
  • Liu Yongjian Email author
  • Mai Kangsen 
  • Tian Lixia 
Review

Abstract

The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

Key Words

Epinephelus grouper nutrient requirement fish nutrition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akiyama, T., I. Oohara, and T. Yamamoto, 1997. Comparison of essential amino acid requirements with A/E ratio among fish species. Fisheries Science, 63: 963–970.Google Scholar
  2. Boonyaratpalin, M., 1997. Nutrient requirements of marine food fish cultured in Southeast Asia. Aquaculture, 151: 283–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, H.Y., and J.C. Tsai, 1994. Optimal dietary protein level for the growth of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, fed semipurified diets. Aquaculture, 119: 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, X., L. Lin, and H. Hong, 1995. Optimum content of protein in artificial diet for Epinephelus akaara. Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait, 14: 407–412 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  5. Chen, X., L. Lin, and H. Hong, 1994. The comparative study on the nutrtious composition in the muscle of wild and cultured Epinephelus akaara. Journal of Xiamen Fisheries College, 16: 1–5 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  6. Cowey, C.B., 1992. Nutrition: estimating requirements of rainbow trout. Aquaculture, 100: 177–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eusebio, P.S., R. M. Coloso, and R.E. Mamauag, 2004. Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton). Aquaculture Research, 35: 1261–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eusebio, P., R. Coloso, and R.E. Mamauag, 2002. Nutritional evaluation of terrestrial protein sources in formulated diets for grouper, Epinephelus coioides juvenile. 10th International Symposium on Nutrition & Feeding in Fish Abstract Book. In: Feeding for Quality (2–7 June, 2002). National Center for Marine Research, Rhodes, Greece, 45.Google Scholar
  9. Hajen, W.E., R.M. Beames, D.A. Higgs, and B.S. Dosanjh, 1993. Digestibility of various feedstuffs by post juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in sea water: 1. Validation of technique. Aquaculture, 112: 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu, L. C., M.S. Chen, and H. Y. Chen, 2001. Dietary zinc for juvenile grouper Epinephelus malabaricus: requirements and immune response. Asian Fisheries Society 6th Asian Fisheries Forum Book of Abstract. In: Asian Fisheries: Diversification and Integration (November 25–30, 2001). National Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 47.Google Scholar
  11. Jia, F., D. Feng, J. Liu, G. Lin, Y. Zheng, et al, 1994. Study on artificially-formulated diets for Epinephelus akaara. Fisheries Science, 13(5): 12–14 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  12. Kaushik, S.J., and F. Medale, 1994. Energy requirements, utilization and dietary supply to salmonids. Aquaculture, 124: 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Laining, A., Rachmansyah, T. Ahmad, and K. Williams, 2003. Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis. Aquaculture, 218: 529–538.Google Scholar
  14. Lin, H., Y. Liu, L. Tian, J. Wang, W. Zheng, et al, 2004. Apparent digestibility coefficients of various feed ingrediens for grouper Epinephelus coioides. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 35: 134–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin, L., L. Zhou, and H. Hong, 1995. A preliminary study on physical characteristics of artificially-formulated diets for Epinephelus akaara. Journal of Xiamen Fisheries College, 17(1): 17–20, 26 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  16. Lin, M. F., and S. Y. Shiau, 2004. Requirements of vitamin C (L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg and L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na) and its effects on immune responses of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 10: 327–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lin, Y.H., and S. Y. Shiau, 2002. Dietary lipid requirement of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, and effects on immune response. Aquaculture, 225: 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin, Y., and X. Zhang, 1996. Study on artificially-formulated diets for Epinephelus akaara. Journal of Fujian Fisheries, (4): 65–66 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  19. Liu, Y., D. Liu, L. Tian, and G. Liang, 2001. Comparison of biochemical compositions of several cultured marine fishes. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (natural science), 20(Suppl.): 156–158 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  20. Luo, Z., Y. Liu, K. Mai, L. Tian, D. Liu, et al, 2004a. Optimal dietary protein requirement of grouper Epinephelus coioides juveniles cultured in floating net-cages and fed isoenergetic diets. Aquaculture Nutrition, 10: 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luo, Z., Y. Liu, K. Mai, L. Tian, D. Liu, et al, 2004b. Partial replacement of fish meal by soybean protein in diets for grouper Epinephelus coioides juveniles. Journal of Fishieries of China, 28: 175–181 (in English).Google Scholar
  22. Millamena, O.M., 2002. Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for grow-out culture of grouper Epinephelus coioides. Aquaculture, 204: 75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Millamena, O.M., and J.D. Toledo. Replacement of fish meal by lupin meal in a practical diet for grouper Epinephelus coioides juveniles. 10th International Symposium on Nutrition & Feeding in Fish-Abstract Book. In: Feeding for Quality (2–7 June, 2002). National Center for Marine Research, Rhodes, Greece, 44.Google Scholar
  24. Millamena, O.M., and N. V. Golez, 2001. Evaluation of processed meat solubles as replacement for fish meal in diet for juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton). Aquaculture Research, 32(Suppl. l): 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mohamed, J.S., V. Sivaram, T.S.C. Roy, M.P. Marian, S. Murugadassa, et al., 2003. Dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile greasy grouper (Epinephelus tauvina). Aquaculture, 219: 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qin, Q., Z. Wu, and J. Pan, 2000a. Disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C on grouper, Epinephelus awoara. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 18: 247–252.Google Scholar
  27. Qin, Q., Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, and J. Pan, 2000b. Non-specific immunomodulatory effects of dietary vitamin C on grouper Epinephelus awoara. Tropic Oceanology, 19: 58–63.Google Scholar
  28. Rainuzzo, J., K.I. Reitan, and Y. Olsen, 1997. The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review. Aquaculture, 155: 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rosenlund, G., J. Stoss, and C. Talbot, 1997. Co-feeding marine fish larvae with inert and live diets. Aquaculture, 155: 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sargent, J., L.A. McEvoy, and J.G. Bell, 1997. Requirements, presentation and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine fish larval feeds. Aquaculture, 155: 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shiau, S.Y., and C.W. Lan, 1996. Optimum dietary protein level and protein to energy ratio for growth for grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus). Aquaculture, 145: 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shiau, S.Y., and Y. H. Lin, 2001. Carbohydrate utilization and its protein-sparing effect in diets for grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. Animal Science, 73: 299–304.Google Scholar
  33. Shiau, S.Y., and Y. H. Lin, 2002. Utilization of glucose and starch by the grouper Epinephelus malabaricus at 23°C. Fisheries Science, 68: 991–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Teng, S.K., T. E. Chua, and P. E. Lim, 1978. Preliminary observation on the dietary protein requirement of estuary grouper, Epinephelus salmonides Maxiwell, cultured in floating netcages. Aquaculture, 15: 257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang, S., Y. Liu, L. Tian, W. Zhen, J. Cao, et al, 2003. Nutritional analysis of different diets and effect of diets on growth and fatty acid composition in larval grouper Epinephelus coioides. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 42(Suppl. 2): 210–213 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  36. Watanabe, T., V. Kiron, and S. Satoh, 1997. Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture, 151: 185–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Watanabe, T., C. Kitajima, and S. Fujita, 1983. Nutritional values of live food organisms used in Japan for mass propagation of fish: a review. Aquaculture, 34: 115–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wilson, R.P., 1994. Utilization of dietary carbohydrate by fish. Aquaculture, 124: 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilson, R.P., and W.E. Poe, 1985. Relationship of whole body and egg essential amino acid patterns to amino acid requirement patterns in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Comp Biochem Physiol, 80B: 385–388.Google Scholar
  40. Wu, F.C., and H.Y. Chen, 2001. Dietary DHA/EPA on growth and immune response of juvenile grouper Epinephelus malabaricus. Asian Fisheries Society 6th Asian Fisheries Forum-Book of Abstract. In: Asian Fisheries-Diversification and Integration (November 25–30, 2001). National Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 47.Google Scholar
  41. Wu, F.C., Y. Y. Ting, and H. Y. Chen, 2002. Docosahexaenoic acid is superior to eicosapentaenoic acid as the essential fatty acid for growth of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. J. Nutr., 132: 72–79.Google Scholar
  42. Wu, J., and H. Lin, 2003. Histological studies on post-embryonic development of the digestive system of Epinephelus coioides. Journal of Fisheries of China, 27: 7–12 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  43. Xiao, W., Y. Liu, L. Tian, W. Zhen, J. Cao, et al, 2003. Effect of vitamin E and vitamin C on spawning quality of broodstock for grouper Epinephelus coioides. Acta Scientiarum Natural89ium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 42 (Suppl.2): 214–217 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  44. Yu, H., X. Lin, X. Liang, Z. Xu, and Y. Meng, 2004. Growth of Cromileptes altivelis and Epinephelus coioides in closed recirculating aquacultural system. Marine Sciences, 28(4): 1–4 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  45. Yufera, M., E. Pascual, and C. Fernandez-Diaz, 1999. A highly efficient microencapsulated food for rearing early larvae of marine fish. Aquaculture, 177: 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang, B., and G. Chen, 1996. A study on the composition of amino acid of four groupers. Journal of Fisheries of China, 20: 111–119.Google Scholar
  47. Zheng, L., 2004. Effect of different diets on growth and survival of young fish of Epinephelus coioides. Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait, 23: 341–346 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  48. Zou, J., W. Xiang, C. Hu, J. Lin, and Z. Zhang, 2003 b. Feeding and growth of the larvae of Epinephelus malabaricus in the process of nourishing transformation. High Technology Communication, (5): 86–91 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  49. Zou, J., W. Xiang, C. Hu, J. Lin, and Z. Zhang, 2003c. Growth and development of the larva, juvenile and young fish of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider). High Technology Communication, (4): 77–84 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  50. Zou, J.-X., L. Chang, W.-Z. Xiang, C.-Q. Hu, and J.-S. Lin, 2003 a. Parent grouper rearing, spawning, fertilization and embryonic development of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider). Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 27: 378–384 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ocean University of China (OUC) 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luo Zhi 
    • 1
  • Liu Yongjian 
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mai Kangsen 
    • 2
  • Tian Lixia 
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life SciencesSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouP.R.China
  2. 2.Fisheries CollegeOcean University of ChinaQingdaoP.R.China

Personalised recommendations