Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration

  • Zhang Peng 
  • Zhou QiEmail author
Research Article


Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND), which is more economical compared with the traditional method for nitrogen removal, is studied in this paper. In order to find the suitable conditions of this process, a mixed flow activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration is investigated, and some key control parameters are examined for nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater. The results show that SND is accessible when oxygen concentration is 0.3–0.8 mg/L. The nitrogen removal rate can be obtained up to 66.7% with solids retention time (SRT) of 45 d, C/N value of 10, and F/M ratio of 0.1 g COD/(g MLSS·d). Theoretical analysis indicates that SND is a physical phenomenon and governed by oxygen diffusion in flocs.


low oxygen concentration simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) aerobic nitrification microenvironment theory 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zhang P, Zhou Q, Song L P, Gu G W Study progress on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Chongqing Environmental Sciences, 2001, 23(6): 20–24 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Poth M, Focht D D. 15N kinetic analysis N2O production by Nirosomonas europaea an examination of nitrifier denitrification. Appl Environ Microbiol, 1985, 49(5): 1134–1141Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Helmer C, Kunst S. Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification in an aerobic biofilm system. Water Sci Technol, 1998, 37(4–5), 183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhao H W, Mavinic D S, Oldham W K, Koch F A. Controlling factors for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a two-stage intermittent aeration process treating domestic sewage. Water Res, 1999, 33(4): 961–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hippen A, Rosenwinkel K H, Baumgarten G, Seyfried C F. Aerobic deammonification—a new experience in the treatment of wastewaters. Water Sci Technol, 1997, 35(10): 111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Villaberde S, Fdz-polanco F, García P A. Nitrifying biofilm acclimation to free ammonia in submerged biofilters. Start-up influence. Water Res, 2000, 34(2): 602–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yoo K, Ahn K H, Lee H J, Lee K H, Kwak Y J, Song K G. Nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) via nitrite in an intermittently-aerated reactor. Water Res, 1999, 33(1): 145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rittmann B E, Langeland W E. Simultaneous denitrification with nitrification in single-channel oxidation ditches. Journal WPCF, 1985, 57(4): 300–308Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pochana K, Keller J. Study of factors affecting simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Water Sci Technol, 1999, 39(6): 61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pochana K, Keller J, Lant P. Model development for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Water Sci Technol, 1999, 39(1): 235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andreadakis A D. Physical and chemical properties of activated sludge floc. Water Res, 1993, 27(12): 1707–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu Y T. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal from the Wastewater. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 1996, 38–39 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zheng X C, Li Y X. The Technology of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal. Beijing: China Building Industry Press, 1998, 45–46 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environmental and Material EngineeringYantai UniversityYantaiChina
  2. 2.State key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources ReuseTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations