Ilvaite as a thermodynamic recorder of multistage retrograde alteration in large Galinge skarn Fe deposit, western China


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The ilvaite-bearing skarn associations in the Galinge skarn deposit were studied to determine their physicochemical formation conditions. A thermodynamic model setting pressure of 50 MPa (Pf=Ps=50 MPa) was set up to trace the skarn evolution. Petrographic evidence for replacement of garnet and magnetite by ilvaite in the early retrograde stage (Stage I) combined with thermodynamic modeling suggests that the alteration may have occurred at 400–470 °C under moderately high fO2 with ΔlgfO2(HM) ranges from −4 to −4.2. The model is based on a maximum pressure of 50 MPa calculated from magmatic amphibole geobarometer. The continuous breakdown of ilvaite with quartz to form ferro-actinolite and magnetite occur in the late retrograde stage (Stage II). The reactions occurred at 400-440°C under moderate fO2 (ΔlgfO2(HM): −4 to −4.4). In Stage III, the breakdown of ilvaite to form calcite, pyrite and ferroactinolite depends on XCO2 which can be estimated to be in a range of 0.005 to 0.05, and the reaction would occur at higher temperatures with increasing XCO2. Under these conditions, the breakdown occurs at 270–350 °C and low fO2 (ΔlgfO2(HM): up to −5.2). The thermodynamic model for continuous evolution from Stage I to Stage III completely records the conditions of the retrograde alteration, which is inconsistent with the thermobarometry imprints of fluid inclusions. Therefore, the petrography and phase relations of ilvaite are useful indicators of reaction conditions in various skarn deposit types.


尕林格大型矽卡岩铁矿位于祁漫塔格斑岩-矽卡岩成矿带内, 发育一套典型的 Ca 质退化蚀变矽 卡岩系列. 其中, 含黑柱石退化蚀变组合可以很好地反演流体交代热动力学过程. 岩石学证据表明在 早期退化蚀变阶段 (Stage I), 黑柱石交代石榴子石和磁铁矿, 该反应根据岩浆角闪石地质温压计设定 最大压力条件 50 MPa, 获得热动力学 T=400~470 °C 和 ΔlgfO2(HM)=−4~−4.2; 在晚期退化蚀变阶段 (Stage II), 黑柱石和石英反应生成磁铁矿和铁阳起石, 该反应发生在 400~440 °C 和 ΔlgfO2(HM)=−4~−4.4 热动力学条件范围内; 到了方解石-石英-硫化物阶段(Stage III), 黑柱石分解形成方解石、黄铁矿 和铁阳起石, 该反应发生温度随着 XCO2 的升高而升高, 在XCO2=0.005−0.05 范围内, 分解反应条件为 T=270−350 °C 和ΔlgfO2(HM)<−5.2. 随着黑柱石的连续演化, 该热动力学模型完整地记录了退化蚀 变反应的发生过程. 除此之外, 流体体系中Fe 和Mg 的含量会强烈影响黑柱石在矽卡岩体系中的稳 定性. 因此, 黑柱石的岩石学和相变关系可以很好地指示不同类型矽卡岩矿床的交代反应过程.

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Correspondence to Cheng-you Feng 丰成友 or Bin Li 李斌.

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Foundation item: Projects(41172076, 41802080) supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China; Project(1212011085528) supported by Geological Survey Program from the China Geological Survey; Project(2019CX035) supported by Innovation-driven Plan of Central South University, China; Project(201411025) supported by the Scientific Research Fund from Ministry of Land and Re-sources, China; Project(201309) supported by the Program of High-level Geological Talents, China; Project(201112) supported by the Youth Geological Talents of the China Geological Survey

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Yu, M., Dick, J.M., Mao, J. et al. Ilvaite as a thermodynamic recorder of multistage retrograde alteration in large Galinge skarn Fe deposit, western China. J. Cent. South Univ. 26, 3534–3550 (2019) doi:10.1007/s11771-019-4271-8

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Key words

  • Galinge skarn deposit
  • ilvaite
  • retrograde alteration
  • thermodynamic properties


  • 尕林格矽卡岩矿床
  • 黑柱石
  • 退化蚀变
  • 热动力学属性