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Genesis of Qujiashan manganese deposit, Shaanxi Province: constraints from geological, geochemical, and carbon and oxygen isotopic evidences

陕西屈家山锰矿床成因研究:来自地质、地球化学和C−O 同位素的证据

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Abstract

The Qujiashan manganese deposit is located in the Longmen-Daba fold belt along the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. The layered ore bodies are distributed within the purple-red calcareous shale. Qujiashan is a high-grade w(MnO)=8.92% to 18.76%) manganese deposit with low-phosphorus w(P2O5)=0.08% to 0.16%) content. It also has a low total REEs contents (with an average of 101.3×10−6), and has inconspicuous Ce (0.81 to 1.29) and Eu (1.00 to 1.25) anomalies. lg(Ce/Ce*) values are from −0.02 to 0.11. The ores have high SiO2/Al2O3 and Al/(Al + Fe + Mn) ratios. In figures of Fe−Mn−[(Ni+Cu+Co)×10] and lgU−lgTh, all samples show that hydrothermal exhalative fluids played an important role during mineralisation. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of eight ore samples are from −20.7‰ to −8.2‰ (with an average of −12.4%) and from 14.3‰ to 18.7‰ (with an average of 17.0‰), respectively. These carbon and oxygen isotopic features indicate that hydrothermal fluids derived from deep earth are participation in the metallogenic process, which is also supported by high paleo-seawater temperatures varying from 47.08 to 73.98 °C. Therefore, the geological and geochemical evidences show that the Qujiashan deposit formed from submarine exhalative hydrothermal sedimentation.

摘要

屈家山锰矿床位于扬子地块北缘龙门-大巴山褶皱带内,矿体赋存于上震旦统陡山沱组 第三岩性段紫红色钙质页岩中,呈层状、似层状产出。赋矿地层中见火山岩和硅质岩等,同时 见大量黄铁矿和少量菱铁矿。锰矿石中MnO 含量介于 8.92%~18.76%, P2O5 含量介于 0.08%∼0.16%, 为低磷、高品位锰矿床。矿石的稀土总量较低(平均为 101.3×10−6), 轻、重稀土分馏不明显,中稀土 略微富集,基本无 Eu ((平均值为1.12)和Ce(平均值为1.09)异常,lg(Ce /Ce≜) 值为−0.02~0.11。矿石中 S 与 Al2O3 呈负相关关系,而与 MnO 呈正相关关系,表明S 可能来源于海底喷流热液,同时矿石具 有较高的 SiO2/Al2O3 比值(4.8~9.6)和较低的Al/(Al+Fe+Mn)比值(0.1~0.27),在Fe−Mn−(Ni+Cu+Co)×10 和lgU−lgTh 图解上,所有样品落入古热水沉积区域反映海底喷流热液参与成矿。矿石中TiO2、 SiO2、 TFe2O3 与 Al2O3 表现为正相关关系, MnO 与 Al2O3、TiO2、SiO2 表现出负相关关系,表明可能 有少量陆源物质的输入。矿石中 δ13CPDBδ18OSMOW 值分别为−20.7‰~−8.2‰(平均为−12.4‰) 和 14.3‰~18.7‰ (平均为17.0‰),根据氧同位素外部计温法估算出该矿床形成时古海水温度为47.08~73.98 °C,表明深部流体参与了成矿。综合矿床地质和地球化学特征,本研究认为该矿床为海底喷流 热液成因。

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Mr XIE Xin-guo and Mr PU Zheng-wu for helping with field work, and Dr. ZHOU Jia-xi for helping with trace element, carbon and oxygen isotope analyses.

Author information

Correspondence to Tao Ren 任涛.

Additional information

Foundation item: Project(41663006) supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China; Project(1212011220725) supported by the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey

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Wang, Z., Han, R., Ren, T. et al. Genesis of Qujiashan manganese deposit, Shaanxi Province: constraints from geological, geochemical, and carbon and oxygen isotopic evidences. J. Cent. South Univ. 26, 3516–3533 (2019) doi:10.1007/s11771-019-4270-9

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Key words

  • manganese deposit
  • element geochemistry
  • carbon and oxygen isotopes
  • genesis
  • Qujiashan manganese deposit

关键词

  • 锰矿床
  • 元素地球化学
  • C−O 同位素
  • 矿床成因
  • 屈家山锰矿