Journal of Central South University

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1409–1417 | Cite as

Acoustic pressure simulation and experiment design in seafloor mining environment

  • Hai-ming Zhao (赵海鸣)
  • Yan-li Wang (王艳丽)
  • Feng-lin Han (韩奉林)
  • Ya-qian Ji (姬雅倩)
  • Bo-wen Luo (罗柏文)


Since the suspended sediments have severe influence on acoustic radiated field of transducer, it is significant for sonar system to analyze the influence of suspended sediments on acoustic pressure in the seafloor mining environment. Based on the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotkaya-Kuznetsov) equation, the method of sound field analysis in turbid water is proposed. Firstly, based on the analysis of absorption in clean water and viscous absorption of suspended sediments, the sound attenuation coefficient as a function of frequency in the mining environment is calculated. Then, based on the solution of KZK equation in frequency domain, the axial sound pressure of transducer in clear water as well as turbid water is simulated using MATLAB. Simulation results show that the influence of the suspended sediments on the pressure of near field is negligible. With the increase of distance, the axial sound pressures of transducer decay rapidly. Suspended sediments seriously affect the pressure in far-field. To verify the validity of this numerical method, experiment is designed and the axial sound pressure of transducer with a frequency of 200 kHz and a beam width of 7.5° is measured in simulated mining experiment. The results show that the simulation results agree well with the experiments, and the KZK equation can be used to calculate the sound field in turbid water.

Key words

seafloor mining acoustic pressure KZK equation turbid seawater sound attenuation 



针对海底采矿环境下, 悬浮泥沙对换能器声场分布影响严重的问题, 基于KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotkaya-Kuznetsov)方程,提出了混浊水域中声场分析方法。首先,对清洁水域声吸 收和悬浮泥沙引起的粘滞声吸收进行分析,并由此建立采矿环境下声衰减系数随频率变化的规律曲 线。然后,利用MATLAB,通过KZK 方程的频域求解方法,对清洁水域和混浊水域中换能器轴向声 场进行数值计算。仿真结果表明,悬浮泥沙对近场距离内轴向声压的影响不大,而随着距离的增大, 换能器轴向声压幅值很快衰减,悬浮泥沙使远场区声压幅值严重降低。模拟采矿实验测量频率为 200 kHz,波束角为7.5°换能器的轴向声压分布,结果表明,仿真结果与实验结果的一致性较好,KZK 方程可以有效描述混浊水域中的声场分布。


海底采矿 声压 KZK 方程 混浊海水 声衰减 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    CHEN Xi, JIANG Guo, XU Xin. An approach to the detection of underwater remote target [J]. Chinese Journal of Acoustics, 2004, 23(1): 88–96.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    GUO Xiao, YANG Kun, SHI Yang, DUAN Rui. An underwater acoustic data compression method based on compressed sensing [J]. Journal of Central South University, 2016, 23(8): 1981–1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    NOMURA H, HEDBERG C M, KAMAKURA T. Numerical simulation of parametric sound generation and its application to length-limited sound beam [J]. Applied Acoustics, 2012, 73(12): 1231–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    RYBYANETS A N, SHVETSOVA N A, SHVETSOV I A, SAPOZHNIKOV O A, KHOKHLOVA V A. Theoretical calculations and numerical modeling of high intensity ultrasonic fields for optimization of high intensity focused ultrasound transducers [J]. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2016, 9(42): 1–13.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    WANG Yue. Prediction of acoustic field radiated from focusing transducer [C]//6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP). Hangzhou, China: IEEE, 2013: 1407–1411.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    MA Yong, MA Qing, ZHANG Dong, GONG Xiu, LIU Xiao. Theoretical and experimental study of super-harmonic sound propagation and imaging in biological tissues [J]. Acta Acustica, 2006, 31(5): 433–437. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    FUJISAWA K, ASADA A. Numerical method for calculating nonlinear sound propagation in full acoustic field [J]. Acoustical Science and Technology, 2015, 36(5): 438–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    ZHANG Song, LI Zhong, FANG Er. Research on the parametric array sound characteristic of the annular transducer [C]//Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves, and Device Applications (SPAWDA). Jinan, China: IEEE, 2015: 402–406.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    GHESHLAGHI M, SADIGHI-BONABI R, GHADIRIFAR A. The effect of KZK pressure equation on the sonoluminescence in water and fat tissues [J]. Physics Letters A, 2015, 379(36): 1951–1959.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    HASANI M H, GHARIBZADEH S, FARJAMI Y, TAVAKKOLI J. Unmitigated numerical solution to the diffraction term in the parabolic nonlinear ultrasound wave equation [J]. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2013, 134(3): 1775–1790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    KHOKHLOVA V A, SOUCHON R, TAVAKKOLI J, SAPOZHNIKOV O A, CATHIGNOL D. Numerical modeling of finite-amplitude sound beams: Shock formation in the near field of a cw plane piston source [J]. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2001, 110(1): 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    WANG Cheng, ZHENG Hui, WANG Yue, YU Sang. Underwater sound field distribution simulation of underwater acoustic transducers [J]. Computer Simulation, 2015, 32(5): 222–225, 261. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    YANG De, LI Zhong, FANG Er. Study of the parametric array acoustic field yielded by three collimated primary waves with different phases [J]. Journal of Harbin Engineering University, 2016, 37(1): 7–12, 109. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    XUE Hong, LIU Xiao, GONG Xiu, ZHANG Dong. Theoretical and experimental research on the second harmonic of focused ultrasound in layered biological media [J]. Acta Physica Sinica, 2005, 54(11): 5233–5238. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    PENG Lin, WANG Gui. Sound attenuation in suspended particulate matter seawater of Chinese sea offshore [J]. Acta Acustica, 2008, 33(5): 389–395. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    OCHI H, WATANABE Y, SHIMURA T. Measurement of absorption loss at 80 kHz band for wideband underwater acoustic communication [J]. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2008, 47(5): 4366–4368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    RICHARDS S D, LEIGHTON T G, BROWN N R. Sound absorption by suspensions of nonspherical particles: measurements compared with predictions using various particle sizing techniques [J]. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2003, 114(4): 1841–1850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    RICHARDS S D, LEIGHTON T G, BROWN N R. Visco-inertial absorption in dilute suspensions of irregular particles [J]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2003, 459(2037): 2153–2167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    LIU Yong, LI Qi, ZHANG Chao, TANG Rui. Research on calculating and measuring sound absorption in turbid seawater [J]. Journal of Harbin Engineering University, 2010, 31(11): 1472–1477. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    ZHANG Fu, LI An, LIN Zhen, ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Xiao, ZHANG Jie. Classification and nomenclature of deep sea sediments [J]. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 2006, 37(6): 517–523. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    ZHAO Hai, JI Ya, HONG Yu, HAO Qi, MA Li. A Volterra series-based method for extracting target echoes in the seafloor mining environment [J]. Ultrasonics, 2016, 71: 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex ManufacturingCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.National Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources Exploration Equipment and Safety TechnologyHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtanChina

Personalised recommendations