Journal of Central South University

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 1010–1014 | Cite as

Degradation of aniline by Fe2+-activated persulfate oxidation at ambient temperature

  • Yong-qing Zhang (张永清)Email author
  • Xiao-fang Xie (谢晓芳)
  • Wei-lin Huang (黄伟林)
  • Shao-bin Huang (黄少斌)


The aniline degradation by persulfate activated with ferrous ion (Fe2+) was investigated in batch reactor at ambient temperature. The experimental factors in aqueous solutions including persulfate concentration, Fe2+ concentration, pH and ionic strength level were discussed. It is demonstrated that, aniline degradation rate increases with increasing persulfate concentration, but much more ferrous ion inhibits the aniline degradation. When the aniline concentration is 0.10 mmol/L, the maximum aniline degradation occurs at the S2O8 2− to Fe2+ molar ratio of 250/5 at pH 7.0. In the pH range of 5.0–8.5, increasing pH causes higher aniline degradation. What’s more, the increase of ionic strength in solution causes inhibiting in the reaction. Produced intermediates during the oxidation process were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology. And degradation pathways of aniline were also tentatively proposed.

Key words

aniline ferrous ion persulfate degradation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    KAO C M, HUANG K D, WANG J Y, CHEN T Y, CHIEN H Y. Application of potassium permanganate as an oxidant for in situ oxidation of trichloroethylene-contaminated groundwater: A laboratory and kinetics study [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008, 153: 919–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    MECOZZI R, PALMA L D, MERLI C. Experimental in situ chemical peroxidation of atrazine in contaminated soil [J]. Chemosphere, 2006, 62: 1481–1489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    YANG Shi-ying, WANG Ping, YANG Xin, WEI Guang, ZHANG Wen-yi, SHAN Liang. A novel advanced oxidation process to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater: Microwave-activated persulfate oxidation [J]. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2009, 21: 1175–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    HUANG Kun-chang, ZHAO Zhi-qiang, HOAG G E, DAHMANI A, BLOCK P A. Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation [J]. Chemosphere, 2005, 61: 551–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    ANIPSITAKIS G P, DIONYSIOU D D. Radical generation by the interaction of transition metals with common oxidants [J]. Environment Science Technology, 2004, 38(13): 3705–3712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    HUIE R E, CLIFTON C L, NETA P. Electron transfer rates and equilibria of the carbonate and sulfate radicals anions [J]. International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation Part C: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 1991, 38(5): 477–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    TRAVINA O A, KOZLOV Y N, PURMAL A P, KODKOI Y A. Synergism of the action of the sulfite oxidation initiators, iron and peroxydisulfate ions [J]. Russian Journal of Physics and Chemistry, 1999, 73: 1215–1219.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    BUXTON G V, MALONE T N, SALMON G A. Reaction of SO4−· with Fe2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solution [J]. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 1997, 93: 2893–2897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    BUXTON G V, BARLOW S, MCGOWAN S, SALMON G A, WILIAMS J E. The reaction of the SO3−· radical with Fe(II) in acidic aqueous solution-A pulse radiolysis study [J]. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 1999, 1: 3111–3116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    LI Jian, XIE Chun-juan. Study on aerobic co-metabolic degradation of aniline in wastewater [J]. Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2007, 1(6): 51–55. (in Chinese)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    ZHANG Yong-qing, HUANG Wei-lin, FENNELL D E. In situ chemical oxidation of aniline by per sulfate with iron(II) activation at ambient temperature [J]. Chinese Chemical Letters, 2010, 21: 911–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    PENNINGTON D E, HAIM A. Stoichiometry and mechanism of the chromium(II) peroxydisulfate reaction [J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1968, 90(14): 3700–3704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    NORMAN R O C, STOREY P M, WEST P R. Electron spin resonance studies. Part XXV: Reactions of sulphate radical anion with organic compounds [J]. Journal of the Chemical Society B, 1970: 1087–1095.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    HAYON E, TREININ A, WILF J. Electronic spectra, photochemistry, and autoxidation mechanism of the sulfite-bisulfite-pyrosulfite systems: The SO2, SO3, SO4 and SO5 radicals [J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1972, 91(01): 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    LIANG Chen-ju, WANG Zih-sin, BRUELL C J. Influence of pH on persulfate oxidation of TCE at ambient temperatures [J]. Chemosphere, 2007, 66: 106–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    HUANG Kun-chang, COUTTENYE R A, HOAG G E. Kinetics of heat-assisted persulfate oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) [J]. Chemosphere, 2002, 49: 413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    LI Shen-xin, WEI Dong, MAK Nai-ki, CAI Zong-wei, XUE Xiang-rong, LI Hua-bin, JIANG Yue. Degradation of diphenylamine by persulfate: Performance optimization, kinetics and mechanism [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009, 164: 26–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    BRILLAS E, MUR E, SAULEDA R, ÁNCHEZ L S, PERAL J Â, ÁNECHB X D, CASADOC J. Aniline mineralization by AOP’s: Anodic oxidation, photocatalysis, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes [J]. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 1998, 16: 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    SAULEDA R, BRILLAS E. Mineralization of aniline and 4-chlorophenol in acidic solution by ozonation catalyzed with Fe2O and UVA light [J]. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2001, 29: 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    CANLE L M, SANTABALLA J A, VULLIET E. On the mechanism of TiO2-photocatalyzed degradation of aniline derivatives [J]. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 2005, 175: 192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong-qing Zhang (张永清)
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xiao-fang Xie (谢晓芳)
    • 1
  • Wei-lin Huang (黄伟林)
    • 3
  • Shao-bin Huang (黄少斌)
    • 1
  1. 1.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment and Pollution Control, College of Environment and EnergySouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Sciences, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations