Advertisement

Journal of Central South University

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1434–1440 | Cite as

Mathematical model for coupled reactive flow and solute transport during heap bioleaching of copper sulfide

  • Sheng-hua Yin (尹升华)Email author
  • Ai-xiang Wu (吴爱祥)
  • Xi-wen Li (李希雯)
  • Yi-ming Wang (王贻明)
Article

Abstract

Based on the momentum and mass conservation equations, a comprehensive model of heap bioleaching process is developed to investigate the interaction between chemical reactions, solution flow, gas flow, and solute transport within the leaching system. The governing equations are solved numerically using the COMSOL Multiphysics software for the coupled reactive flow and solute transport at micro-scale, meso-scale and macro-scale levels. At or near the surface of ore particle, the acid concentration is relatively higher than that in the central area, while the concentration gradient decreases after 72 d of leaching. The flow simulation between ore particles by combining X-ray CT technology shows that the highest velocity in narrow pore reaches 0.375 m/s. The air velocity within the dump shows that the velocity near the top and side surface is relatively high, which leads to the high oxygen concentration in that area. The coupled heat transfer and liquid flow process shows that the solution can act as an effective remover from the heap, dropping the highest temperature from 60 to 38 °C. The reagent transfer coupled with solution flow is also analyzed. The results obtained allow us to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental physical phenomenon of the bioleaching process.

Key words

copper sulphide heap bioleaching leaching reaction solution flow solute transport 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    MOUSAVI S M, JAFARI A, YAGHMAEI S, VOSSOUGHI M, SARKOMAA P. Computer simulation of fluid motion in a porous bed using a volume of fluid method: Application in heap leaching [J]. Minerals Engineering, 2006, 19(10): 1077–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    PRADHAN N, NATHSARMA K C, SRINIVASA K, SUKLA L B, MISHRA B K. Heap bioleaching of chalcopyrite: A review [J]. Minerals Engineering, 2007, 21(5): 355–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    WATLING H R. The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis on copper sulphides—A review [J]. Hydrometallurgy, 2006, 84(1/2): 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    WU Ai-xiang, YIN Sheng-hua, WANG Hong-jiang, QIN Wen-qing, QIU Guan-zhou. Technological assessment of a mining-waste dump at the Dexing copper mine, China, for possible conversion to an in situ bioleaching operation [J]. Bioresource Technology, 2009, 100(6): 1931–1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    THIEL R, SMITH M E. State of the practice review of heap leach pad design issues [J]. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 2004, 22(6): 555–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    BENNETT C R, MCBRIDE D, CROSS M, GEBHARDT J E, TAYLOR D A. Simulation technology to support base metal ore heap leaching [J]. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 2006, 115(1): 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    BARTLETT R W. Simulation of ore heap leaching using deterministic models [J]. Hydrometallurgy, 1992, 29(3): 231–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    PAUL B C, SOHN H Y, MCCARTER M K. Model for ferric sulfate leaching of copper ores containing a variety of sulfide minerals. Part 1: Modeling uniform size ore fragments [J]. Metallurgical Transactions B, 1992, 23(5): 537–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    PANTELIS G, RITCHIE A I M, STEPANYANTS Y A. A conceptual model for the description of oxidation and transport processes in sulphidic waste rock dumps [J]. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2002, 26(7): 751–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    BOUFFARD S C, DIXON D G. Investigative study into the hydrodynamics of heap leaching processes [J]. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, 2001, 32(5): 763–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    CASAS J M, MARTINEZ J, MORENO L, VARGOS T. Bioleaching model of a copper-sulphide ore bed in heap and dump configurations [J]. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, 1998, 29(4): 899–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    DIXON D G. Analysis of heat conservation during copper sulphide heap leaching [J]. Hydrometallurgy, 2000, 58(1): 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    de ANDRADE LIMA L R P. A mathematical model for isothermal heap and column leaching [J]. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2004, 21(3): 435–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    CARIAGA E, CONCHA F, SEPULVEDA M. Flow through porous media with applications to heap leaching of copper ores [J]. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2005, 111(2/3): 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    CROSS M, BENNETT C R, CROFT T N, MCBRIDE D, GEBHARDT J E. Computational modeling of reactive multi-phase flows in porous media: Applications to metals extraction and environmental recovery processes [J]. Minerals Engineering, 2006, 19(10): 1098–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    SHEIKHZADEH G A, MEHRABIAN M A, MANSOURI S H, SARRAFI A. Computational modelling of unsaturated flow of liquid in heap leaching-Using the results of column tests to calibrate the model [J]. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2005, 48(2): 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    SIDBORN M, CASAS J, MARTINEZ J, MORENO L. Two-dimensional dynamic model of a copper sulphide ore bed [J]. Hydrometallurgy, 2003, 71(1–2): 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    WU Ai-xiang, LIU Jin-zhi, TANG Ling-yan. Simulation of coupled flow in reaction-deformation with mass transfer in heap leaching processes [J]. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2007, 28(3): 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    WU Ai-xiang, YIN Sheng-hua, QIN Wen-qing, LIU Ji-shan, QIU Guan-zhou. The effect of preferential flow on extraction and surface morphology of copper sulphides during heap leaching [J]. Hydrometallurgy, 2009, 95(1/2): 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheng-hua Yin (尹升华)
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ai-xiang Wu (吴爱祥)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xi-wen Li (李希雯)
    • 1
  • Yi-ming Wang (王贻明)
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal MinesUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Civil and Environment EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations