Numerical and experimental analysis of quenching process for cam manufacturing

  • Qian Tang (唐倩)
  • Lin-qing Pei (裴林清)
  • Han-song Xiao (肖寒松)


In order to obtain satisfactory mechanical properties for the cam used in high-power ship diesel engines, a new quenching technology was proposed by designing a two-stage quenching process with an alkaline bath as the quenching medium. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new quenching technology, both numerical analysis and experimental study were performed. The new quenching technology was analyzed using finite element method. The combined effects of the temperature, stress and microstructure fields were investigated considering nonlinear material properties. Finally, an experimental study was performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed new quenching technology. The numerical results show that internal stress is affected by both thermal stress and transformation stress. In addition, the direction of the internal stress is changed several times due to thermal interaction and microstructure evolution during the quenching process. The experimental results show that the proposed new quenching technology significantly improves the mechanical properties and microstructures of the cam. The tensile strength, the impact resistance and the hardness value of the cam by the proposed new quenching technology are improved by 4.3%, 8.9% and 3.5% compared with those by the traditional quenching technology. Moreover, the residual stress and cam shape deformation are reduced by 40.0% and 48.9% respectively for the cam manufactured by the new quenching technology.

Key words

quenching process cam manufacturing finite element method numerical simulation experimental study 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    LI Hui-ping, ZHAO Guo-qun, HE Lian-fang. Finite element method based simulation of stress-strain field in the quenching process [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2008, 478(1/2): 276–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    TOPARLI M, SAHIN S, OZKAYA E, SASAKI S. Residual thermal stress analysis in cylindrical steel bars using finite element method and artificial neural networks [J]. Computers and Structures, 2002, 80(23): 1763–1770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    YAO Xin, GU Jian-feng, HU Ming-juan, ZHANG Wei-min. Numerical simulation of the quenching process of GCr15 steel tube [J]. Transactions of Materials Heat Treatment, 2003, 24(1): 78–81. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    HOSSAIN S, DAYMOND M R, TRUMAN C E, SMITH D J. Prediction and measurement of residual stresses in quenched stainless-steel spheres [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2004, 373(1/2): 334–349.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    GÜR C H, TEKKAYA A E. Numerical investigation of non-homogeneous plastic deformation in quenching process [J]. Material Science and Engineering A, 2001, 312/319: 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    KANG S H, IM Y T. Three-dimensional thermo-elastic-plastic finite element modeling of quenching process of plain-carbon steel in couple with phase transformation [J]. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2007, 49(4): 423–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    SEN S, AKSAKAL B, OZEL A. Transient and residual thermal stress in quenched cylindrical bodies [J]. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2000, 42(10): 2013–2029.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    CORET M, CALLOCH S, COMBESCURE A. Experimental study of the phase transformation plasticity of 16MND5 low carbon steel under multiaxial loading [J]. International Journal of Plasticity, 2002, 18(12): 1707–1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    KAKHKI M E, KERMANPUR A, GOLOZAR M A. Numerical simulation of continuous cooling of a low alloy steel to predict microstructure and hardness [J]. Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 2009, 17(4): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    ULYSSE P, SCHULTZ R W. The effect of coatings on the thermo-mechanical response of cylindrical specimens during quenching [J]. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2008, 204(1/3): 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    SONG D L, GU J F, PAN J S, HU M J. Numerical simulation of quenching of large sized blocks of 718 steel used for plastic dies [J]. Materials Science and Technology, 2004, 20(12): 1567–1572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    DOLAN G P, FLYNN R J, TANNER D A, ROBINSON J S. Quench factor analysis of aluminium alloys using the Jominy end quench technique [J]. Materials Science and Technology, 2005, 21(6):687–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    LI Hui-ping, ZHAO Guo-qun, HUANG Chuan-zhen, NIU Shan-ting. Technological parameters evaluation of gas quenching based on the finite element method [J]. Computational Material Science, 2007, 40(2): 282–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    SONG Guang-sheng, LIU Xiang-hua, WANG Guo-dong, XU Xiang-qiu, LI Guo-chen. Numerical simulation of microstructure and stress in carburizing and quenching process of 22CrMo steel [J]. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, 2006, 18(10): 36–40. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    WANG De-guang, WU Yu-cheng, JIAO Ming-hua, YU Jian-wei, XIE Ting. Finite element simulation of influence of different compacting processes on powder metallurgic products properties [J]. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2008, 44(1): 205–211. (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    WANG Xu-cheng. Finite element method [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2003: 1–776. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    YUAN Jian, ZHANG Wei-min, LIU Zhan-cang, CHEN Nai-lu, WANG Ming-hua, XU Jun. The measurement and calculation of heat transfer coefficient under cooling conditions [J]. Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment, 2005, 26(4): 115–119. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    TAN Zhen, GUO Guang-wen. Thermophysical properties of engineering alloys [M]. Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1994: 1–228. (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Tang (唐倩)
    • 1
  • Lin-qing Pei (裴林清)
    • 1
  • Han-song Xiao (肖寒松)
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Mechanical TransmissionsChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations