Journal of Central South University of Technology

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 948–953 | Cite as

Aerobic biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by Xiangjiang River sediment and microflora analysis

  • Hong-bo Zhou (周洪波)Email author
  • Feng Lin (林 峰)
  • Pei-lei Hu (胡培磊)
  • De-cai Jing (金德才)
  • Hong-qiang Ren (任洪强)
  • Jing Zhao (赵 晶)
  • Guan-zhou Qiu (邱冠周)


Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), one of phthalate acid esters (PAEs), was investigated to determine its biodegradation rate using Xiangjiang River sediment and find potential DBP degraders in the enrichment culture of the sediment. The sediment sample was incubated with an initial concentration of DBP of 100 mg/L for 5 d. The biodegradation rate of DBP was detected using HPLC and the degraded products were analyzed by GC/MS. Subsequently, the microbial diversity of the enrichment culture was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results reveal that almost 100% of DBP is degraded after merely 3 d, generating two main degraded products: mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) and 9-octadecenoic acid. After a six-month enrichment period under the pressure of DBP, the dominant family in the final enrichment culture is clustered with the Comamonas sp., the remaining are affiliated with Sphingomonas sp., Hydrogenophaga sp., Rhizobium sp., and Acidovorax sp. The results show the potential of these bacteria to be used in the bioremediation of DBP in the environment.

Key words

bioremediation di-n-butyl phthalate sediment polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism microbial diversity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    EJLERTSSON J, ALNERVIK M, JONSSON S, SVENSSON B H. Influence of water solubility, side-chain degradability, and side-chain structure on the degradation of phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions[J]. Environ Sci Tech, 1997, 31(10): 2761–2764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    FROMME H, KUCHLER T, OTTO T, PILZ K, MULLER J, WENZEL A. Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment[J]. Water Res, 2002, 36(6): 1429–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    ADAMS W J, BIDDINGER G R, ROBILLARD K A, GORSUCH J W. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms[J]. Environ Toxicol Chem, 1995, 14(9): 1569–1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    ZHANG Yun-hui, JIANG Xue-zhi, CHEN Bing-heng. Reproductive and developmental toxicity in F1 Sprague-Dawley male rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate in utero and during lactation and determination of its NOAEL[J]. Reproductive Toxicology, 2004, 18(5): 669–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    MATSUMOTO M, HIRATA-KOIZUMI M, EMA M. Potential adverse effects of phthalic acid esters on human health: A review of recent studies on reproduction[J]. Regul Toxicol Pharm, 2008, 50(1): 37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    NAIR N, BEDWAL S, KUMARI D, BEDWAL S, BEDWAL R S. Effect on histological and sperm kinetics in DBP exposed Wistar rats[J]. Journal of Environmental Biology, 2008, 29(5): 769–772.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    WANG Jian-long, LIU Ping, QIAN Yi. Microbial degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate[J]. Chemosphere, 1995, 31(9): 4051–4056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    STAPLES C A, PETERSON D R, PARKERTON T F, ADAMS W J. The environmental fate of phthalate esters: A literature review[J]. Chemosphere, 1997, 35(4): 667–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    LI Jun, CHEN Ji-an, ZHAO Qing, LI Xiang, SHU Wei-qun. Bioremediation of environmental endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Rhodococcus rubber[J]. Chemosphere, 2006, 65(9): 1627–1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    YUAN S Y, LIU C, LIAO C S, CHANG B V. Occurrence and microbial degradation of phthalate esters in Taiwan river sediments[J]. Chemosphere, 2002, 49(10): 1295–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    KUMAR S, TAMURA K, NEI M. MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment[J]. Brief Bioinform, 2004, 5(2): 150–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    XU Xing-rong, LI Hua-bin, GU Ji-dong. Biodegradation of an endocrine-disrupting chemical di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Pseudomonas fluorescens B-1[J]. Int Biodeter Biodegr, 2005, 55(1): 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    PATIL N K, KUNDAPUR R, SHOUCHE Y S, KAREGOUDAR T B. Degradation of a plasticizer, di-n-butylphthalate by Delftia sp. TBKNP-05[J]. Current Microbiology, 2006, 52(3): 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    CHANG B V, LIAO G S, YUAN S Y. Anaerobic degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sludge[J]. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2005, 75(4): 775–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    LEE S M, KOO B W, LEE S S, KIM M K, CHOI D H, HONG E J, JEUNG E B, CHOI I G. Biodegradation of dibutylphthalate by white rot fungi and evaluation on its estrogenic activity[J]. Enzyme Microb Tech, 2004, 35(5): 417–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    MCNAUGHTON S J, STEPHEN J R, VENOSA A D, DAVIS G A, CHANG Y J, WHITE D C. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill[J]. Appl Environ Microbiol, 1999, 65(8): 3566–3574.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    RAYNAL M, PRUDEN A. Aerobic MTBE biodegradation in the presence of BTEX by two consortia under batch and semi-batch conditions[J]. Biodegradation, 2008, 19(2): 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    SINGLETON D R, POWELL S N, SANGAIAH R, GOLD A, BALL L M, AITKEN M D. Stable-isotope probing of bacteria capable of degrading salicylate, naphthalene, or phenanthrene in a bioreactor treating contaminated soil[J]. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2005, 71(3): 1202–1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    LIU Lei, WU Jian-feng, MA Ying-fei, WANG Sheng-yue, ZHAO Guo-ping, LIU Shuang-jiang. A novel deaminase involved in chloronitrobenzene and nitrobenzene degradation with Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1[J]. J Bacteriol, 2007, 189(7): 2677–2682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    CHANG B V, YANG C M, CHENG C H, YUAN S Y. Biodegradation of phthalate esters by two bacteria strains[J]. Chemosphere, 2004, 55(4): 533–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong-bo Zhou (周洪波)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Feng Lin (林 峰)
    • 1
  • Pei-lei Hu (胡培磊)
    • 1
  • De-cai Jing (金德才)
    • 1
  • Hong-qiang Ren (任洪强)
    • 2
  • Jing Zhao (赵 晶)
    • 3
  • Guan-zhou Qiu (邱冠周)
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Minerals Processing and BioengineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources ReuseNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.School of Life Science and TechnologyHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations