Modification of natural graphite using pitch through dynamical melt-carbonization

  • Zhou You-yuan  (周友元)
  • Li Xin-hai  (李新海)Email author
  • Guo Hua-jun  (郭华军)
  • Wang Zhi-xing  (王志兴)
  • Yang Yong  (杨勇)
  • Xie Qiao-ling  (谢巧玲)


The graphite was modified using pitch through dynamical melt-carbonization, and the effects of modification temperature and the amount of pitch on the characteristics of graphite were investigated. The structure and characteristics of the graphite were determined by X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), particle size analysis and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the modified graphite has a disordered carbon/graphite composite structure, larger average particle diameter, greater tap density, and better electrochemical characteristics than the untreated graphite. The sample coated with 10% pitch dynamical melt-carbonized at 400 °C for 3 h and heat-treated at 850 °C for 2 h has better electrochemical performances with a reversible capacity of 360.5 mA·h/g, a irreversible capacity of 41.0 mA·h/g, and an initial coulombic efficiency of 89.8% compared with natural graphite and disordered carbon. The cycling stability of the Li/C cell with modified graphite as anodes is improved, and its capacity retention ratio at the 30th cycle is up to 94.37%.

Key words

lithium ion battery graphite dynamical melt-carbonization anode 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    GUO Hua-jun, LI Xin-hai, WANG Zhi-xing, et al. Mild oxidation treatment of graphite anode for Li-ion batteries[J]. J Cent South Univ Technol, 2005, 12(1): 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    HONGYU W, MASAKI Y, TAKESHI A, et al. Characterization of carbon-coated natural graphite as a lithium ion battery anode material[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 2002, 149(4): 499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    GUO Hua-jun, LI Xin-hai, WANG Zhi-xing, et al. Effect of lithium or aluminum substitution on the characteristics of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries[J]. Rare Metals, 2003, 22(4): 280–284.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    KATSUNORI Y, ATSUSHI Y, YOSHINORI K, et al. Carbon hybrids graphite hard carbon and graphite coke as negative electrode batteries materials for lithium secondary batteries charge/discharge characteristics[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 2002, 149(7): A804–A807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    HOSSAIN S, YONGKYU K, SALEH Y, et al. Comparative studies of MCMB and C-C composite as anodes for lithium-ion systems[J]. J Power Sources, 2003, 114(2): 264–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    FEY T K, LEE D C, LIN Y Y, et al. High-capacity disordered carbons derived from peanut shells as lithium-intercalating anode materials[J]. Synthetic Metals, 2003, 139(1): 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    SHI Hang. Coke vs. graphite as anodes for lithium-ion batteries[J]. J Power Sources, 1998, 75(1): 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    MENACHEM C, WANG Y, FLOWERS J, et al. Characterization of lithiated natural graphite before and after mild oxidation[J]. J Power Sources, 1998, 76(2): 180–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    HUANG Hong, LIU Wei-teng, HUANG Xue-jie, et al. Effect of a rhombohedral phase on lithium intercalation capacity in graphite[J]. Solid State Ionics, 1998, 110(3/4): 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    SUZUKI K, HAMADA T, SUGIURA T. Effect of graphite structure on initial irreversible reaction in graphite anodes[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 1999, 146(3): 890–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    BEGUIN F, CHEVALLIER F, VIX C, et al. A better understanding of the irreversible lithium insertion mechanisms in disordered carbons[J]. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 2004, 65(2/3): 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    YOSHIO M, WANG H, FUKUDA K, et al. Effect of carbon coating on electrochemical performance of treated natural graphite as lithium-ion battery anode material[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 2000, 147(4): 1245–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    DING Y S, LI W N, SANTO I, et al. Characteristics of graphite anode modified by CVD carbon coating[J]. Surface & Coatings Technology, 2006, 200(9): 3041–3048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    SHU Jie, LI Hong, YANG Rui-zhi, et al. Cage-like carbon nanotubes/Si composite as anode material for lithium ion batteries[J]. Electrochemistry Communications, 2006, 8(1): 51–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    GUO Hua-jun, LI Xin-hai, WANG Zhi-xing, et al. Si-doped composite carbon as anode of lithium ion batteries[J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2003, 13(5): 1062–1065.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    CHUNG G C, JUN S H, LEE K Y, et al. Effect of surface structure on the irreversible capacity of various graphitic carbon electrodes[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 1999, 146(5): 1664–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    ZAGHIB K, NADEAU G, KINOSHITA K. Effect of graphite particle size on irreversible capacity loss[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 2000, 147(6): 2110–2115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    WANG Guo-ping, ZHANG Bo-lan, YUE Min, et al. A modified graphite anode with high initial efficiency and excellent cycle life expectation[J]. Solid State Ionics, 2005, 176(9/10): 905–909.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press, Sole distributor outside Mainland China: Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhou You-yuan  (周友元)
    • 1
  • Li Xin-hai  (李新海)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guo Hua-jun  (郭华军)
    • 1
  • Wang Zhi-xing  (王志兴)
    • 1
  • Yang Yong  (杨勇)
    • 1
  • Xie Qiao-ling  (谢巧玲)
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Metallurgical Science and EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations