Advertisement

Geographical Variation and Influencing Factors of Spartina alterniflora Expansion Rate in Coastal China

  • 19 Accesses

Abstract

Biological invasion poses a huge threat to ecological security. Spartina alterniflora was introduced into China in 1979, and its arrival corresponded with negative effects on native ecosystems. To explore geographical variation of its expansion rate in coastal China, we selected 43 S. alterniflora sites from Tianjin Coastal New Area to Beihai. The area expansion rate, expansion rate paralleling and vertical to the shoreline were analysed based on Landsat images and field survey in 2015. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) and climate data were collected to statistically analyse the influential factors of expansion rate. Results showed that significant difference of S. alterniflora area expansion rate among different latitude zones (P < 0.01), increasing from 6.08% at southern (21°N–23°N) to 19.87% in Bohai Bay (37°N–39°N) along latitude gradient. There was a significant difference in expansion rate vertical to shoreline in different latitude zones (P < 0.01) with the largest occurring in Bohai Bay (256 m/yr, 37°N–39°N), and showed an decreasing tendency gradually from north to south. No significant difference and latitudinal clines in expansion rate paralleling to shoreline were observed. Expansion rate had significant negative correlation with mean seawater temperature, the lowest seawater temperature, current zonal velocity and meridional velocity and presented a reducing trend as these biotic factors increased; however, they were not significantly correlated with the highest seawater temperature and mean seawater salinity. We identified significant correlations between expansion rate and annual mean temperature, the lowest temperature in January and annual precipitation, but there was little correlation with annual diurnal difference in temperature and the highest temperature in July. The rapid expansion rate in high-latitude China demonstrated a higher risk of potential invasion in the north; dynamic monitoring and control management should be established as soon as possible.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

References

  1. Adams J, Van W E, Riddin T, 2016. First record of Spartina alterniflora in southern Africa indicates adaptive potential of this saline grass. Biological Invasions, 18(8): 2153–2158. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-015-0957-5

  2. Adams J B, Grobler, A, Rowe C et al., 2012. Plant traits and spread of the invasive salt marsh grass, Spartina alternilora Loisel., in the Great Brak estuary, South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science, 34(3): 313–322. doi: https://doi.org/10.2989/1814232x.2012.725279

  3. Andow D A, Karevia P M, 1993. Spread of invading organisms: patterns of spread. In: Kim K C (ed). Evolution of Insect Pests: Patterns of Variation. New York: Wiley.

  4. An S Q, Gu B H, Zhou C F et al., 2007. Spartina invasion in China: implications for invasive species management and future research. Weed Research, 47(3): 183–191. doi: https://doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2012.725279

  5. Ayres D R, Zaremba K, Sloop C M et al., 2008. Sexual Reproduction of Cordgrass Hybrids (Spartina foliosa×Alterniflora) Invading Tidal Marshes in San Francisco Bay. Diversity and Distributions, 14(2): 187–195. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00414.x

  6. Bancroft J, Smith M T, 2001. Assessing invasion risk using remote sensing. The ESA 2001 Annual Meeting: An Entomological Odyssey of ESA.

  7. Baumel A, Ainouche M L, Misset M T et al., 2003. Genetic evidence for hybridization between the native Spartina maritima and the introduced Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in Southwest France: Spartina×neyautii re-examined. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 237(1): 87–97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-002-0251-8

  8. Bradley B A, Mustard J F, 2006. Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing. Ecological Application, 16(3): 1132–1147. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[1132:CTLDOA]2.0.CO;2

  9. Callaway J C, Josselyn M N, 1992. The introduction and spread of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in south San Francisco Bay. Estuaries, 15(2): 218–226. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/1352695

  10. Campos J A, Herrera M, Biurrun I et al., 2004. The role of alien plants in the natural coastal vegetation in central-northern Spain. Biodiversity Conservation, 13(12): 2275–2293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000047902.27442.92

  11. Cao Haobing, Ge Zhenming, Zhu Zhenchang et al., 2014. The expansion pattern of saltmarshes at Chongming Dongtan and its underlying mechanism. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34(14): 3944–3952. (In Chinese)

  12. Carton J A, Giese B S, Grodsky S A, 2005. Sea level rise and the warming of the oceans in the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) ocean reanalysis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 110(C9): C09006.

  13. Chen H L, Li B, Hu J B et al., 2007. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on benthic nematode communities in the Yangtze Estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 336: 99–110. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps336099

  14. Chen Z Y, Li B, Zhong Y et al., 2004. Local competitive effects of introduced spartina alterniflora on Scirpus mariqueter at Dongtan of Chongming Island, the Yangtze River eatuary and their potential ecological consequences. Hydrobiologia, 528(1): 99–106. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-1888-9

  15. Chung C H, 2006. Forty years of ecological engineering with Spartina plantations in China. Ecol ogical Engineering, 27(1): 49–57. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.09.012

  16. Civille J C, Sayce K, Smith S D et al., 2005. Reconstructing a century of Spartina alterniflora invasion with historical records and contemporary remote sensing. Ecoscience, 12(3): 330–338. doi: https://doi.org/10.2980/i1195-6860-12-3-330.1

  17. Cohen W B, Goward S N, 2004. Landsat’s role in ecological applications of remote sensing. Bioscience, 54(6): 535–545. doi: https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0535:LRIEAO]2.0.CO;2

  18. Daehler C C, Strong D R, 1996. Status, prediction and prevention of introduced cordgrass Spartina spp. Invasion in Pacific estuaries, USA. Biological Conservation, 78(1): 51–58. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(96)00017-1

  19. Daehler C C, Strong D R, 1994. Variable reproductive output among clones of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) invading San Francisco Bay, California: the influence of herbivory, pollination, and eastablishment site. American Journal of Botany, 81(3): 307–313. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1994.tb15448.x

  20. Davis H G, Taylor C M, Civille J C, 2004. An Allee effect at the front of a plant invasion: Spartina in a Pacific eatuary. Journal of Ecology, 92(2): 321–327. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00873.x

  21. Davis M A, Grime J P, Thompson K, 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invisibility. Journal of Ecology, 88(3): 528–534. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2000.00473.x

  22. Deng Zifa, An Shuqing, Zhi Yingbiao et al., 2006. Preliminary studies on invasive model and outbreak mechanism of exotic species, Spartiona alterniflora Loisel. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26(8): 2678–2686. (in Chinese)

  23. Drenovsky R E, Grewell B J, D’Antonio C M et al., 2012. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion. Annals of Botany, 110(1): 141–153. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcs100

  24. Elton C S, 1958. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. London: Chapman and Hall.

  25. Enrefeld J G, 2003. Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling process. Ecosystems, 6(6): 503–523. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-002-0151-3

  26. Feist B E, Simenstad C A, 2000. Expansion rates and recruitment frequency of exotic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Loisel), colonizing unvegetated littoral flats in Willapa Bay, Washington. Estuaries, 23(2): 267–274. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/1352832

  27. Gao H, Zhai Shuijing, Sun Zhigao et al., 2018. Spatial and temporal variations of available silica content in marsh soils under the Spartina alterniflora invasion in the Min River estuary. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 38(17): 6136–6142. (in Chinese)

  28. Gavier-Pizarro G I, Kuemmerle T, Hoyos L E et al., 2012. Monitoring the invasion of an exotic tree (Ligustrum lucidum) from 1983 to 2006 with Landsat TM/ETM plus satellite data and Support Vector Machines in Cordoba, Argentina. Remote Sensing of Environment, 122: 134–145. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.023

  29. Gurevitch J, Padilla D K, 2004. Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(9): 470–474. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.07.005

  30. Grevstad F S, Strong D R, Garcia-Rossi D et al., 2003. Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results. Biological Control, 27(1): 32–42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1049-9644(02)00181-0

  31. Hedge P, Kriwoken L K, Pattern K, 2003. A review of Spartina management in Washington State, US. Journal of aquatic plant management, 41(2): 82–90.

  32. Hengeveld R, 1989. Dynamics of biological invasions. London: Chapman and Hall.

  33. Huang H M, Zhang L Q, 2007. A study of the population dynamics of Spartina alterniflora at Jiuduansha shoals, Shanghai, China. Ecological Engineering, 29(2): 164–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.06.005

  34. Huang Huamei, Zhang Liquan, Yuan Lin, 2007. The spatio-temporal dynamics of salt marsh vegetation for Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve, Shanghai. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27(10): 4166–4172. (in Chinese)

  35. Idaszkin Y L, Bortolus A, 2011. Does low temperature prevent Spartina alterniflora from expanding toward the austral-most salt marshes? Plant Ecology, 212(4): 553–561. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-010-9844-4

  36. Kirwan M L, Guntenspergen G R, Morris J T, 2009. Latitudinal trends in Spartina alterniflora productivity and the response of coastal marshes to global change. Global Change Biology, 15(8): 1982–1989. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01834.x

  37. Levin L A, Neira C, Grosholz E D, 2006. Invasive cordgrass modifies wetland trophic function. Ecology, 87(2): 419–432. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/04-1752

  38. Liao D, Huang H B, Zhuang S X et al., 2018. Effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora on rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial community structures and diversity in roots of native mangroves. Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 24(2): 0269–0275. doi: https://doi.org/10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2017.04032

  39. Li B, Liao C H, Zhang X D et al., 2009. Spartina alterniflora invasions in the Yangtze River estuary, China: An overview of current status and ecosystem effects. Ecological Engineering, 35(4): 511–520. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.05.013

  40. Liu Lu, Yu Xiayang, Tang Honggen et al., 2019. Effect of reclamation on the annual and seasonal characteristics of Spartina alterniflora population in Tiaozini coastal wetland. Journal of Agricultural Resources and Environment, 36(3): 376–384. (in Chinese)

  41. Liu M Y, Mao D H, Wang Z M et al., 2018. Rapid invasion of Spartina alterniflora in the coastal zone of mainland China: new observations from Landsat OLI images. Remote Sensing, 10: 1933. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121933

  42. Liuting V T, Cordell J R, Olson A M et al., 1997. Does exotic spartina alterniflora change benthic inbertebrate assemblages? In: Pattern K (ed). Proceeding of the seconed International Spartina Conference. Olympia: Washington State University.

  43. Lin W, Chen G, Guo P et al., 2015. Remote-sensed monitoring of dominant plant species distribution and dynamics at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China. Remote Sensing, 7(8): 10227–10241. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70810227

  44. Liu W W, Maung-Douglass K, Strong D R et al., 2016. Geographical variation in vegetative growth and sexual reproduction of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in China. Journal of Ecology, 104(1): 173–181. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12487

  45. Lu J B, Zhang Y, 2013. Spatial distribution of an invasive plant Spartina alterniflora and its potential as biofuels in China. Ecological Engineering, 52: 175–181. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.107

  46. Major W W, Grue C E, Grassley, J M et al., 2003. Mechanical and chemical control of smooth cordgrass in Willapa Bay, Washington. Journal of Aquat Plant Manage, 41(1): 6–12.

  47. Mao D H, Liu M Y, Wang Z M et al., 2019. Rapid invasion of Spartina Alterniflora in the coastal zone of mainland China: spatiotemporal patterns and human prevention. Sensors, 19(10): 2308. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102308

  48. Murphy J T, Johnson M P, Walshe R, 2013. Modeling the impact of spatial structure on growth dynamics of invasive plant species. Internatiaonal Journal of Modern Physics C, 24(7): 1350042. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0129183113500423

  49. Neira C, Levin L A, Grosholz E D, 2006. Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 292: 111–126. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps292111

  50. Padgett D E, Brown J L, 1999. Effects of drainage and soil organic contents on growth of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in an artificial salt marsh mesocosm. American journal of Botany, 86(5): 697–702. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2656579

  51. Pattridge T R, 1987. Spartina in new-zealand. New Zeal. Journal of Botany, 25(4): 567–575. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1987.10410087

  52. Pennings S C, Selig E R, Houser L T et al., 2003. Geographic variation in positive and negative interactions among salt marsh plants. Ecology, 84(6): 1527–1538. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[1527:GVIPAN]2.0.CO;2

  53. Roy D P, Wulder M A, Loveland T R et al., 2014. Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 154–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.02.001

  54. Shigesada N, Kawasaki K, 1997. Biological Invasions: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  55. Song Honghai, Liang Shuyu, 2010. Effects of Soil characteristics on the growth of Suaeda Salsa. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology, 3: 290–296. (in Chinese)

  56. Strong D R, Ayres D A, 2016. Control and consequences of Spartina spp. Invasions with focus upon San Francisco Bay. Biological Invasions, 18(8): 2237–2246. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-015-0980-6

  57. Tang Guoling, Shen Luheng, Weng Weihua et al., 2007. Effects of using Sonneratia apetala to control the Growth of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 28(1): 10–13. (in Chinese)

  58. Tang L, Gao Y, Li B et al., 2014. Spartina alterniflora with high tolerance to salt stress changes vegetation pattern by outcompeting native species. Ecosphere, 5(9): 1–18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00166.1

  59. Turner R E, 1976. Geographic variations in salt marsh macrophyte production: a review. Contribution in Marine Science, 20: 47–68.

  60. Vitousek P M, D’Antonio C M, Loope L L et al., 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. American Scientist, 84(5): 468–478.

  61. Wang A Q, Chen J D, Jing C W et al., 2015. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora from 1993 to 2014 with Landsat TM and SPOT 6 Satellite Data in Yueqing Bay, China. Plos One, 10(8): e0135538. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135538

  62. Wang Q, An S Q, Ma Z J et al., 2006. Invasive Spartina alterniflora: biology, ecology and management. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 44(5): 559–588. doi: https://doi.org/10.1360/aps06044

  63. Xia L, Zhao H, Yang W et al., 2015. Genetic Diversity, Ecotype Hybrid, and Mixture of Invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Coastal China. Clean Soil Air Water, 43(12): 1559–1692. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300882

  64. Xiao D R, Zhang L Q, Zhu Z C, 2010. The range expansion patterns of Spartina alterniflora on salt marshes in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 88(1): 99–104. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.03.015

  65. Xue Lian, Li Xiuzhen, Zhang Qian et al., 2018. Elevated salinity and inundation will facilitate the spread of invasive Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Journal of Experimental Marine, biology & Ecology, 506: 144–154. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2018.06.008.

  66. Yang W, An S Q, Zhao H et al., 2016. Impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools sizes stability, and turnover in a coastal salt marsh of eastern China, Ecological Engineering, 86(1): 174–182. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.11.010

  67. Yuan Zening, Shi Fuchen, Li Junjian et al., 2008. Sexual reproduction characteristics of Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Tianjin coastal wetland. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 27: 1537–1542. (in Chinese)

  68. Zhang D H, Hu Y M, Liu M et al., 2017. Introduction and spread of an exotic plant, Spartina alterniflora, along coastal marshes of China. Wetlands, 37(6): 1181–1193. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-017-0950-0

  69. Zhang R S, Shen Y M, Lu L Y et al., 2004. Formation of Spartina alterniflora salt marshes on the coast of Jiangsu Province, China. Ecological Engineering, 23(2): 95–105. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2004.07.007

  70. Zhang Y H, Huang G M, Wang W Q et al., 2012. Interactions between mangroves and exotic Spartina in anthropogenically disturbed estuary in southern China. Ecology, 93(3): 588–597. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/11-1302.1

  71. Zuo P, Zhao S H, Liu C A et al., 2012. Distribution of Spartina spp. along China’s coast. Ecological Engineering, 40: 160–166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.12.014

  72. Zhang M, Ustin S L, Rejmankova E et al., 1997. Monitoring Pacific coast salt marshes using remote sensing. Ecological Applications, 7(3): 1039–1053. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[1039:MPCSMU]2.0.CO;2

  73. Zhang X L, Li P Y, Liu Y L, 2006. Storm surge disaster and its impact on coastal wetlands in Yellow River Delta. Journal of Natural Disaster, 15(2): 10–13.

  74. Zhao H, Yang W, Xia L et al., 2015. Nitrogen-Enriched Eutrophication Promotes the invasion of Spartina alterniflora in Coastal China. Clean Soil Air Water, 43(2): 244–250. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300844

  75. Zhu Xudong, Zhang Yihui, Meng Lingxuan et al., 2019. Tidal and meteorological influences on the growth of invasive Spartina alterniflora: evidence from UAV remote sensing. Remote Sensing, 11(10): 1208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2018.06.008

  76. Zhu Zhenchang, Zhang Liquan, Xiao Derong, 2011. Seed production of Spartina alterniflora and its response of germination to temperature at Chongming Dongtan, Shanghai. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31(6): 1574–1581. (in Chinese)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Yuanman Hu.

Additional information

Foundation item

Under the auspices of Special Foundation for State Major Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013FY111800, 2013FY111100-02)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, D., Hu, Y., Liu, M. et al. Geographical Variation and Influencing Factors of Spartina alterniflora Expansion Rate in Coastal China. Chin. Geogr. Sci. 30, 127–141 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-020-1100-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • geographical variation
  • biological invasion
  • Spartina alterniflora
  • expansion rate
  • coastal wetlands
  • China