Photorealistic computer graphics forensics based on leading digit law


DOI: 10.1007/s11767-011-0474-3

Cite this article as:
Xu, B., Wang, J., Liu, G. et al. J. Electron.(China) (2011) 28: 95. doi:10.1007/s11767-011-0474-3


As the advent and growing popularity of image rendering software, photorealistic computer graphics are becoming more and more perceptually indistinguishable from photographic images. If the faked images are abused, it may lead to potential social, legal or private consequences. To this end, it is very necessary and also challenging to find effective methods to differentiate between them. In this paper, a novel leading digit law, also called Benford’s law, based method to identify computer graphics is proposed. More specifically, statistics of the most significant digits are extracted from image’s Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and magnitudes of image’s gradient, and then the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers are built. Results of experiments on the image datasets indicate that the proposed method is comparable to prior works. Besides, it possesses low dimensional features and low computational complexity.

Key words

Leading digit law Benford’s law Digital image forensic Computer graphics 

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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Electronics, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of AutomationNanjing University of Science & TechnologyNanjingChina

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