Advertisement

Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 537–559 | Cite as

Systematic review of self-reported cognitive function in cancer patients following chemotherapy treatment

  • Victoria J. Bray
  • Haryana M. Dhillon
  • Janette L. VardyEmail author
Review

Abstract

Purpose

Cognitive symptoms are common in cancer patients, with up to 70% reporting cognitive symptoms following chemotherapy. These symptoms can have a major impact on how an individual functions in all aspects of their lives. This review evaluates self-reported cognitive function and its associations with neuropsychological tests and patient-reported outcomes in adult cancer patients who received chemotherapy treatment for a solid cancer.

Methods

A search of multiple databases (Medline, Ovid at Nursing, PsycINFO, Allied and Complementary Medicine) from 1936 to 2017 was conducted, identifying 1563 unique articles, of which 101 met inclusion criteria.

Results

Of the 101 included studies, 48 (47%) were cross-sectional and 38 (38%) longitudinal in design, with 12 (12%) randomised controlled trials. A minority (26%) incorporated a healthy control arm in the study design, whilst the majority (79%) were in women with breast cancer. There was diversity in the assessment of self-reported cognitive symptoms. A total of 43 of 44 studies that sought an association between self-reported cognitive function and patient-reported outcomes found a moderate to strong association. Overall, 31 studies showed a lack of association between self-reported cognitive symptoms and neuropsychological results, whilst 14 studies reported a significant association between the two, but the association was often restricted to limited cognitive domains.

Conclusion

The review found widespread heterogeneity in the assessment of self-reported cognitive symptoms and consistently absent or weak association with neuropsychological test scores.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

This research highlights the need for a standardised approach to measurement of self-reported cognitive symptoms in cancer patients.

Keywords

Cancer Cognition Chemotherapy Self-reported cognitive function Cognitive symptoms 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the following members of the research team for their contribution in data abstraction: Corrinne Renton (research officer); Doug Williams (research assistant); and undergraduate psychology students, Liam Darby, Charlotte Emily Davies, Christopher Mo, Pranathi Suryaprakash, Emily Jane Coombs Tidball and Maria Truasheim. We acknowledge Erika Jungfer (volunteer) for her contribution to obtaining articles and compilation of the endnote library.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This review does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Boykoff N, Moieni M, Subramanian SK. Confronting chemobrain: an in-depth look at survivors’ reports of impact on work, social networks, and health care response. J Cancer Surviv. 2009;3:232–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jansen CE, Miaskowski C, Dodd M, Dowling G, Kramer J. A metaanalysis of studies of the effects of cancer chemotherapy on various domains of cognitive function. Cancer. 2005;104:2222–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jim HS, Phillips KM, Chait S, et al. Meta-analysis of cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors previously treated with standard-dose chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3578–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koppelmans V, Breteler MM, Boogerd W, et al. Neuropsychological performance in survivors of breast cancer more than 20 years after adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1080–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schagen SB, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, Rosenbrand RM, van Rhijn D, Rodenhuis S, et al. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on cognitive function: a follow-up study in breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2002;13:1387–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richardson-Vejlgaard R, Dawes S, Heaton RK, Bell MD. Validity of cognitive complaints in substance-abusing patients and non-clinical controls: the Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI). Psychiatry Res. 2009;169:70–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Groenvold M, Klee MC, Sprangers MA, Aaronson NK. Validation of the EORTC QLQ-C30 quality of life questionnaire through combined qualitative and quantitative assessment of patient-observer agreement. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50:441–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wagner L, Sweet J, Butt Z, et al. Measuring patient self-reported cognitive function: development of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive Function instrument. The Journal of Supportive Oncology. 2009;7:W32–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joly F, Giffard B, Rigal O, de Ruiter MB, Small BJ, Dubois M, et al. Impact of cancer and its treatments on cognitive function: advances in research from the Paris International Cognition and Cancer Task Force symposium and update since 2012. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2015;50:830–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wefel JS, Vardy J, Ahles T, Schagen SB. International Cognition and Cancer Task Force recommendations to harmonise studies of cognitive function in patients with cancer. The Lancet Oncology. 2011;12:703–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vardy J, Wefel JS, Ahles T, Tannock IF, Schagen SB. Cancer and cancer-therapy related cognitive dysfunction: an international perspective from the Venice cognitive workshop. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    van Dam FS, Schagen SB, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, vd Wall E, Droogleever Fortuyn ME, et al. Impairment of cognitive function in women receiving adjuvant treatment for high-risk breast cancer: high-dose versus standard-dose chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:210–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schagen SB, van Dam FS, Muller MJ, et al. Cognitive deficits after postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. Cancer. 1999;85:640–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hermelink K. Acute and late onset cognitive dysfunction associated with chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:1103–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jenkins V, Shilling V, Deutsch G, Bloomfield D, Morris R, Allan S, et al. A 3-year prospective study of the effects of adjuvant treatments on cognition in women with early stage breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:828–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vardy J, Wong K, Yi QL, Park A, Maruff P, Wagner L, et al. Assessing cognitive function in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2006;14:1111–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vardy JL, Dhillon HM, Pond GR, Rourke SB, Bekele T, Renton C, et al. Cognitive function in patients with colorectal cancer who do and do not receive chemotherapy: a prospective, longitudinal, controlled study. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:4085–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Von AD, Habermann B, Carpenter JS, Schneider BL. Impact of perceived cognitive impairment in breast cancer survivors. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2013;17:236–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Myers JS. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment: the breast cancer experience. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2012;39:E31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kmet LML, Robert C.; Cook, Linda S. Standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields. Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, Furstenberg CT, Cole B, Mott LA, Skalla K, et al. Neuropsychologic impact of standard-dose systemic chemotherapy in long-term survivors of breast cancer and lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:485–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, McDonald BC, et al. Cognitive function in breast cancer patients prior to adjuvant treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;110:143–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, McDonald BC, et al. Longitudinal assessment of cognitive changes associated with adjuvant treatment for breast cancer: impact of age and cognitive reserve. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4434–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Amidi A, Christensen S, Mehlsen M, Jensen AB, Pedersen AD, Zachariae R. Long-term subjective cognitive functioning following adjuvant systemic treatment: 7-9 years follow-up of a nationwide cohort of women treated for primary breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2015;113:794–801.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Anstey KJ, Sargent-Cox K, Cherbuin N, Sachdev PS. Self-reported history of chemotherapy and cognitive decline in adults aged 60 and older: the PATH through life project. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. 2015;70:729–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Apple AC, Ryals AJ, Alpert KI, Wagner LI, Shih PA, Dokucu M, et al. Subtle hippocampal deformities in breast cancer survivors with reduced episodic memory and self-reported cognitive concerns. NeuroImage: Clinical. 2017;14:685–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Askren MK, Jung M, Berman MG, Zhang M, Therrien B, Peltier S, et al. Neuromarkers of fatigue and cognitive complaints following chemotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective fMRI investigation. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment. 2014;147:445–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barton DL, Burger K, Novotny PJ, Fitch TR, Kohli S, Soori G, et al. The use of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, N00C9. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:1185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bastani P, Ahmad Kiadaliri A. Health-related quality of life after chemotherapy cycle in breast cancer in Iran. Med Oncol. 2011;28(Suppl 1):S70–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bender CM, Sereika SM, Berga SL, Vogel VG, Brufsky AM, Paraska KK, et al. Cognitive impairment associated with adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 2006;15:422–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Biglia N, Bounous VE, Malabaila A, et al. Objective and self-reported cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer women treated with chemotherapy: a prospective study. European Journal of Cancer Care (English Language Edition). 2012;21:485–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bond SM, Dietrich MS, Murphy BA. Neurocognitive function in head and neck cancer patients prior to treatment. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:149–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bray VJ, Dhillon HM, Bell ML, Kabourakis M, Fiero MH, Yip D, et al. Evaluation of a web-based cognitive rehabilitation program in cancer survivors reporting cognitive symptoms after chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:217–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Breckenridge LM, Bruns GL, Todd BL, Feuerstein M. Cognitive limitations associated with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in employed breast cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology. 2012;21:43–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buchanan ND, Dasari S, Rodriguez JL, Lee Smith J, Hodgson ME, Weinberg CR, et al. Post-treatment neurocognition and psychosocial care among breast cancer survivors. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49:S498–508.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carlsson M, Strang P, Bjurstrom C. Treatment modality affects long-term quality of life in gynaecological cancer. Anticancer Res. 2000;20:563–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Castellon SA, Ganz PA, Bower JE, Petersen L, Abraham L, Greendale GA. Neurocognitive performance in breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy and tamoxifen. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004;26:955–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cheung YT, Foo YL, Shwe M, Tan YP, Fan G, Yong WS, et al. Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the functional assessment of cancer therapy: cognitive function (FACT-Cog) in breast cancer patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 2014;67:811–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cheung YT, Lim SR, Shwe M, Tan YP, Chan A. Psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of the English and Chinese versions of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-cognitive in Asian patients with breast cancer. Value Health. 2013;16:1001–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cheung YT, Ng T, Shwe M, Ho HK, Foo KM, Cham MT, et al. Association of proinflammatory cytokines and chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment in breast cancer patients: a multi-centered, prospective, cohort study. Ann Oncol. 2015;26:1446–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cheung YT, Shwe M, Chui WK, Chay WY, Ang SF, Dent RA, et al. Effects of chemotherapy and psychosocial distress on perceived cognitive disturbance in Asian breast cancer patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46:1645–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Collins B, Paquet L, Dominelli R, White A, MacKenzie J. Metamemory function in chemotherapy-treated patients with breast cancer: an explanation for the dissociation between subjective and objective memory measures? Psycho-Oncology. 2017;26:109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Conroy SK, McDonald BC, Smith DJ, et al. Alterations in brain structure and function in breast cancer survivors: effect of post-chemotherapy interval and relation to oxidative DNA damage. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment. 2013;137:493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cruzado JA, Lopez-Santiago S, Martinez-Marin V, et al. Longitudinal study of cognitive dysfunctions induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22:1815–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    de Ruiter MB, Liesbeth R, Boogard W, et al. Cerebral hyporesponsiveness and cognitive impairment: 10 years after chemotherapy for breast cancer. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011;32:1206–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Debess J, Riis JO, Engebjerg MC, Ewertz M. Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer: a population-based longitudinal study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;121:91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Deprez S, Amant F, Smeets A, Peeters R, Leemans A, van Hecke W, et al. Longitudinal assessment of chemotherapy-induced structural changes in cerebral white matter and its correlation with impaired cognitive functioning. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:274–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Deprez S, Vandenbulcke M, Peeters R, Emsell L, Smeets A, Christiaens MR, et al. Longitudinal assessment of chemotherapy-induced alterations in brain activation during multitasking and its relation with cognitive complaints. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:2031–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Donovan KA, Small BJ, Andrykowski MA, Schmitt FA, Munster P, Jacobsen PB. Cognitive functioning after adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for early-stage breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2005;104:2499–507.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Downie FP, Mar Fan HG, Houede-Tchen N, et al. Cognitive function, fatigue, and menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: evaluation with patient interview after formal assessment. Psychooncology. 2006;15:921–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dumas JA, Makarewicz J, Schaubhut GJ, Devins R, Albert K, Dittus K, et al. Chemotherapy altered brain functional connectivity in women with breast cancer: a pilot study. Brain Imaging Behav. 2013;7:524–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fairbanks JMA. Longitudinal study of the effects of chemotherapy on cognitive functioning in breast cancer. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2009;69:5799.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferguson RJ, Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, McDonald BC, Furstenberg CT, Cole BF, et al. Cognitive-behavioral management of chemotherapy-related cognitive change. Psychooncology. 2007;16:772–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ferguson RJ, McDonald BC, Rocque MA, et al. Development of CBT for chemotherapy-related cognitive change: results of waitlist control trial. Psychooncology. 2012;21:176–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ferguson RJP, Sigmon STP, Pritchard AJMPH, et al. A randomized trial of videoconference-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for survivors of breast cancer with self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Cancer. 2016;122:1782–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fitzpatrick TR, Edgar L, Holcroft C. Assessing the relationship between physical fitness activities, cognitive health, and quality of life among older cancer survivors. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2012;30:556–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ganz PA, Kwan L, Castellon SA, Oppenheim A, Bower JE, Silverman DHS, et al. Cognitive complaints after breast cancer treatments: examining the relationship with neuropsychological test performance. Journal of the National Cancer Instiute. 2013;105:791–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ganz PA, Petersen L, Castellon SA, Bower JE, Silverman DHS, Cole SW, et al. Cognitive function after the initiation of adjuvant endocrine therapy in early-stage breast cancer: an observational cohort study. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3559–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hermelink K, Küchenhoff H, Untch M, Bauerfeind I, Lux MP, Bühner M, et al. Two different sides of ‘chemobrain’: determinants and nondeterminants of self-perceived cognitive dysfunction in a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Psycho-Oncology. 2010;19:1321–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hermelink K, Bühner M, Sckopke P et al. Chemotherapy and post-traumatic stress in the causation of cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer patients. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2017; 109: djx057-djx057.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hess LM, Huang HQ, Hanlon AL, Robinson WR, Johnson R, Chambers SK, et al. Cognitive function during and six months following chemotherapy for front-line treatment of ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer: an NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2015;139:541–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Iconomou G, Mega V, Koutras A, Iconomou AV, Kalofonos HP. Prospective assessment of emotional distress, cognitive function, and quality of life in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy. Cancer. 2004;101:404–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Iconomou G, Koutras A, Karaivazoglou K, Kalliolias GD, Assimakopoulos K, Argyriou AA, et al. Effect of epoetin alpha therapy on cognitive function in anaemic patients with solid tumours undergoing chemotherapy. European Journal of Cancer Care. 2008;17:535–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Janelsins MC, Heckler CE, Peppone LJ, Kamen C, Mustian KM, Mohile SG, et al. Cognitive complaints in survivors of breast cancer after chemotherapy compared with age-matched controls: an analysis from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective longitudinal study. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:506–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jansen CE, Cooper BA, Dodd MJ, Miaskowski CA. A prospective longitudinal study of chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19:1647–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Janz NK, Mujahid M, Chung LK, Lantz PM, Hawley ST, Morrow M, et al. Symptom experience and quality of life of women following breast cancer treatment. J Women’s Health. 2007;16:1348–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jaremka LM, Peng J, Bornstein R, Alfano CM, Andridge RR, Povoski SP, et al. Cognitive problems among breast cancer survivors: loneliness enhances risk. Psycho-Oncology. 2014;23:1356–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jim HS, Donovan KA, Small BJ, et al. Cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors: a controlled comparison. Cancer. 2009;115:1776–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Joly F, Lange M, Rigal O, Correia H, Giffard B, Beaumont JL, et al. French version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) version 3. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:3297–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jung MS, Zhang M, Askren MK, Berman MG, Peltier S, Hayes DF, et al. Cognitive dysfunction and symptom burden in women treated for breast cancer: a prospective behavioral and fMRI analysis. Brain Imaging Behav. 2017;11:86–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kesler SR, Kent JS, O’Hara R. Prefrontal cortex and executive function impairments in primary breast cancer. Arch Neurol. 2011;68:1447–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kesler S, Hadi Hosseini S, Heckler C, et al. Cognitive training for improving executive function in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors. Clin Breast Cancer. 2013;13:299–306.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Komatsu H, Yagasaki K, Yamauchi H, Yamauchi T, Takebayashi T. A self-directed home yoga programme for women with breast cancer during chemotherapy: a feasibility study. Int J Nurs Pract. 2016;22:258–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kreukels BP, Schagen SB, Ridderinkhof KR, et al. Electrophysiological correlates of information processing in breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;94:53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kreukels BP, Schagen SB, Ridderinkhof KR, et al. Effects of high-dose and conventional-dose adjuvant chemotherapy on long-term cognitive sequelae in patients with breast cancer: an electrophysiologic study. Clin Breast Cancer. 2006;7:67–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lange M, Giffard B, Noal S, Rigal O, Kurtz JE, Heutte N, et al. Baseline cognitive functions among elderly patients with localised breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50:2181–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li J, Yu L, Long Z, Li Y, Cao F. Perceived cognitive impairment in Chinese patients with breast cancer and its relationship with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and fatigue. Psycho-Oncology. 2015;24:676–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    McDonald BC, Conroy SK, Smith DJ, et al. Frontal gray matter reduction after breast cancer chemotherapy and association with executive symptoms: a replication and extension study. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;30:S117–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    McDougall GJ, Becker H, Acee TW, et al. Symptom management of affective and cognitive disturbance with a group of cancer survivors. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2011;25:24–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mandelblatt JS, Clapp JD. Long-term trajectories of self-reported cognitive function in a cohort of older survivors of breast cancer: CALGB 369901 (Alliance). 2016.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mehnert A, Scherwath A, Schirmer L, Schleimer B, Petersen C, Schulz-Kindermann F, et al. The association between neuropsychological impairment, self-perceived cognitive deficits, fatigue and health related quality of life in breast cancer survivors following standard adjuvant versus high-dose chemotherapy. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;66:108–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Menning S, de Ruiter MB, Veltman DJ, Koppelmans V, Kirschbaum C, Boogerd W, et al. Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment—the role of fatigue. NeuroImage:Clinical. 2015;7:547–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Menning S, de Ruiter MB, Kieffer JM, et al. Cognitive impairment in a subset of breast cancer patients after systemic therapy—results from a longitudinal study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2016;52:560–9. e561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Merriman JD, Sereika SM, Brufsky AM, McAuliffe PF, McGuire KP, Myers JS, et al. Trajectories of self-reported cognitive function in postmenopausal women during adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 2017;26:44–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Milbury K, Chaoul A, Biegler K, Wangyal T, Spelman A, Meyers CA, et al. Tibetan sound meditation for cognitive dysfunction: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial. Psychooncology. 2013;22:2354–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Myers JS, Sousa VD, Donovan HS. Predictors of self-reported memory problems in patients with ovarian cancer who have received chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2010;37:596–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Myers JS, Wick JA, Klemp J. Potential factors associated with perceived cognitive impairment in breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer. 2015;23:3219–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Paganini-Hill A, Clark LJ. Preliminary assessment of cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment. 2000;64:165–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Park JH, Bae SH, Jung YS, Jung YM. The psychometric properties of the Korean version of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-cognitive (FACT-Cog) in Korean patients with breast cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2015;23:2695–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    J-h P, Jung YS, Kim KS, Bae SH. Effects of compensatory cognitive training intervention for breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a pilot study. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25:1887–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pomykala K, Ganz P, Bower J, et al. The association between pro-inflammatory cytokines, regional cerebral metabolism, and cognitive complaints following adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Brain Imaging and Behavior. 2013;7:511–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Poppelreuter M, Weis J, Kulz AK, et al. Cognitive dysfunction and subjective complaints of cancer patients. A cross-sectional study in a cancer rehabilitation centre. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:43–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Poppelreuter M, Weis J, Bartsch HH. Effects of specific neuropsychological training programs for breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2009;27:274–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Porter KE. “Chemo brain”—is cancer survivorship related to later-life cognition? Findings from the health and retirement study. Journal of Aging and Health. 2013;25:960–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Prokasheva S, Faran Y, Cwikel J, Geffen GB. Analysis of memory deficits following chemotherapy in breast cancer suvivors: evidence from the doors and people test. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2011;29:499–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pullens MJ, De Vries J, Van Warmerdam LJ, et al. Chemotherapy and cognitive complaints in women with breast cancer. Psychooncology. 2013;22:1783–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Quesnel C, Savard J, Ivers H. Cognitive impairments associated with breast cancer treatments: results from a longitudinal study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;116:113–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rey D, Bouhnik AD, Mancini J, Bendiane MK, Séror V, Viens P. Self-reported cognitive impairment after breast cancer treatment in young women from the ELIPPSE40 cohort: the long-term impact of chemotherapy. Breast J. 2012;18:406–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schagen SB, Boogerd W, Muller MJ, ten Bokkel Huinink W, Moonen L, Meinhardt W, et al. Cognitive complaints and cognitive impairment following BEP chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer. Acta Oncol. 2008;47:63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schagen SB, Das E, van Dam FS. The influence of priming and pre-existing knowledge of chemotherapy-associated cognitive complaints on the reporting of such complaints in breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2009;18:674–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schagen SB, Das E, Vermeulen I. Information about chemotherapy-associated cognitive problems contributes to cognitive problems in cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2012;21:1132–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schilder CM, Eggens PC, Seynaeve C, Linn SC, Boogerd W, Gundy CM, et al. Neuropsychological functioning in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen or exemestane after AC-chemotherapy: cross-sectional findings from the neuropsychological TEAM-side study. Acta Oncol. 2009;48:76–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Seliktar N, Polek C, Brooks A, Hardie T. Cognition in breast cancer survivors: hormones versus depression. Psycho-Oncology. 2015;24:402–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shaffer VA, Merkle EC, Fagerlin A, Griggs JJ, Langa KM, Iwashyna TJ. Chemotherapy was not associated with cognitive decline in older adults with breast and colorectal cancer: findings from a prospective cohort study. Med Care. 2012;50:849–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shilling V, Jenkins V. Self-reported cognitive problems in women receiving adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2007;11:6–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Skaali T, Fossa SD, Andersson S, et al. Self-reported cognitive problems in testicular cancer patients: relation to neuropsychological performance, fatigue, and psychological distress. J Psychosom Res. 2011;70:403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Skaali T, Fossa SD, Dahl AA. A prospective study of cognitive complaints in patients with testicular cancer. Clinical Genitourinary Cancer. 2011;9:6–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Skoogh J, Steineck G, Stierner U, Cavallin-Ståhl E, Wilderäng U, Wallin A, et al. Testicular-cancer survivors experience compromised language following chemotherapy: findings in a Swedish population-based study 3-26 years after treatment. Acta Oncol. 2012;51:185–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tager FA, McKinley PS, Schnabel FR, et al. The cognitive effects of chemotherapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a controlled longitudinal study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;123:25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Von AD, Harvison KW, Monahan PO, et al. Cognitive function in breast cancer survivors compared to healthy age- and education-matched women. Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;23:661–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Von AD, Carpenter JS, Saykin A, et al. Advanced cognitive training for breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;135:799–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Von AD, Tallman EF. Perceived cognitive function in breast cancer survivors: evaluating relationships with objective cognitive performance and other symptoms using the functional assessment of cancer therapy-cognitive function instrument. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2015;49:697–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Weis J, Poppelreuter M, Bartsch HH. Cognitive deficits as long-term side-effects of adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients: ‘subjective’ complaints and ‘objective’ neuropsychological test results. Psycho-Oncology. 2009;18:775–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zamurovic M, Mitrovic-Jovanovic A, Jurisic A. Ovarian carcinoma patients—life quality analysis in the postoperative period—how to improve it? Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2010;31:672–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tannock I, Ahles T, Ganz P, van Dam F. Cognitive impairment associated with chemotherapy for cancer: report of a workshop. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2233–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wefel JS, Lenzi R, Theriault RL, Davis RN, Meyers CA. The cognitive sequelae of standard-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast carcinoma: results of a prospective, randomized, longitudinal trial. Cancer. 2004;100:2292–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vardy JL, Dhillon H, Xu W et al. Cognitive function and fatigue in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients: baseline assessments prior to chemotherapy. In ASCO Meeting Abstracts. Chicago, USA: 2009; 9557.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wefel JS, Lenzi R, Theriault RL, Buzdar AU, Cruickshank S, Meyers CA. ‘Chemobrain’ in breast carcinoma? A prologue. Cancer. 2004;101:466–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Player L, Mackenzie L, Willis K, Loh SY. Women’s experiences of cognitive changes or ‘chemobrain’ following treatment for breast cancer: a role for occupational therapy? Aust Occup Ther J. 2014;61:230–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Galantino ML, Greene L, Daniels L, Dooley B, Muscatello L, O’Donnell L. Longitudinal impact of yoga on chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment and quality of life in women with early stage breast cancer: a case series. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing. 2012;8:127–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Smidt K, Mackenzie L, Dhillon H, Vardy J, Lewis J, Loh SY. The perceptions of Australian oncologists about cognitive changes in cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24:4679–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria J. Bray
    • 1
  • Haryana M. Dhillon
    • 2
  • Janette L. Vardy
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyLiverpool HospitalLiverpoolAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Medical Psychology & Evidence-based Decision-makingUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Medical Oncology, Concord Cancer CentreConcord Repatriation General HospitalConcordAustralia
  4. 4.Sydney Medical SchoolUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations