Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 167–174 | Cite as

Comparison of shoulder flexibility, strength, and function between breast cancer survivors and healthy participants

  • Shana Harrington
  • Darin Padua
  • Claudio Battaglini
  • Lori A. Michener
  • Carol Giuliani
  • Joseph Myers
  • Diane Groff



Deficits after breast cancer treatment have been examined by comparing the surgically affected upper extremity to the unaffected extremity. It is not possible to know precisely if anti-cancer treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy had any effect on the unaffected arm. The purpose of this study was to compare ROM, strength, and shoulder function between breast cancer survivors and healthy, matched controls.


Shoulder pain and function was assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder Hand (DASH) and the Pennsylvania Shoulder Score (PSS). Active and passive range of motion (ROM) for shoulder flexion, extension, external rotation (ER) at 0° and 90° of abduction, internal rotation (IR) at 90° of abduction were measured on the affected side using a digital inclinometer. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer for scapular abduction and upward rotation, scapular depression and adduction, flexion, internal rotation, ER, scaption, and horizontal adduction.


Significant differences were found between the two groups for the DASH (p < 0.001) and PSS (p < 0.001), active flexion (p < 0.001), 90° ER (p = 0.020), extension (p = 0.004) and passive flexion (p < 0.001) and 90° ER (p = 0.012). All 7 of the shoulder girdle strength measures were significantly different between groups for abduction and upward rotation (p = 0.006), depression and adduction (p = 0.001), flexion (p < 0.001), ER (p = 0.004), IR (p = 0.001), scaption (p < 0.001), and adduction (p < 0.001).


These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest clinicians focus on these particular ROM, strength, and shoulder function measures when treating a breast cancer survivors.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Shoulder ROM, strength, and function are important to assess in BCS.


Breast cancer Shoulder Shoulder function Oncology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shana Harrington
    • 1
  • Darin Padua
    • 2
  • Claudio Battaglini
    • 3
  • Lori A. Michener
    • 4
  • Carol Giuliani
    • 5
  • Joseph Myers
    • 2
  • Diane Groff
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Applied Movement SciencesThe University of North FloridaJacksonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Sport ScienceThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Exercise and Sport ScienceThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physical TherapyVirginia Commonwealth University—MCV CampusRichmondUSA
  5. 5.Department of Allied Health SciencesThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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