Living post treatment: definitions of those with history and no history of cancer
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Introduction: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Due to advances in medicine, the 10 year survival rate is 80%, resulting in a large and growing number of breast cancer survivors. Definitions of cancer survivorship from a number of professional organizations and researchers vary, but the research is scant on the meaning of cancer survivorship to people with and without a prior cancer history. Methods: Two studies were conducted (1) to compare individuals with and without a prior personal cancer diagnosis in terms of those who identified as survivors vs. those who did not identify as survivors and (2) to explore explanations of those with and without a prior personal cancer for the term cancer survivor. In Study 1, individuals were surveyed at cancer-themed community health fairs. In Study 2, women were surveyed at a breast oncology clinic. Results: In Study 1 comparing those with and without a prior cancer diagnosis, prior cancer history was the best predictor of survivorship identity, and only three individuals without a prior cancer history included family and friends as survivors. In Study 2 of those with a personal history, longer time since diagnosis, type of cancer (ductal), and comparative risk (higher) were associated with survivor identity. Conclusion: Completion of treatment was seen as a ‘rite of passage’, and thus, may be seen as a shift from the patient identity, which may have negative connotations, to the positive identity of survivor. Implications: Definitions of survivorship vary considerably, and caution should be used when applying the term to those who have no prior personal cancer diagnosis and to those who have had a more recent cancer diagnosis with a more severe disease course.
KeywordsCancer Oncology Survivorship Psychosocial Identity
Funding for this project was received from the Ohio Division of the American Cancer Society. We would also like to acknowledge Raquel Tobian, BS; Jaymia Mitchell, PhD; and Margaret Kuder, BS for their assistance in data collection and literature searches.
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