Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 236–246 | Cite as

A cross-sectional study of the psychosexual impact of cancer-related infertility in women: third-party reproductive assistance

  • Jeanne Carter
  • Leigh Raviv
  • Linda Applegarth
  • Jennifer S. Ford
  • Laura Josephs
  • Elizabeth Grill
  • Charles Sklar
  • Yukio Sonoda
  • Raymond E. Baser
  • Richard R. Barakat



This study empirically assessed emotional and sexual functioning, reproductive concerns, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer-related infertile women in comparison to those without a cancer history and explored awareness of third-party reproduction options in cancer survivors.


One hundred twenty-two cancer survivors (Gynecologic and Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant) with cancer-related infertility and 50 non-cancer infertile women completed a self-report survey assessing: reproductive concerns (RCS), mood (CES D), distress (IES), sexual function (FSFI), menopause (SCL), QOL (SF 12), relationships (ADAS), and exploratory (reproductive options) items.


Cancer survivors exhibited greater sexual dysfunction and lower physical QOL than non-cancer infertile women (P < 0.001). No significant group differences were identified for mood (CES-D), mental health QOL (SF-12), reproductive concerns (RCS), and relationship satisfaction (ADAS). All groups scored in the FSFI range of sexual dysfunction, and with RCS scores above published means. Multivariate comparisons showed comparable depression and distress levels for all groups, but cancer survivors had poorer physical QOL [F(5,146)=4.22, P < 0.01]. A significant effect was also found for knowledge of third-party reproductive options on depression and distress levels [F(3,97)=4.62,P < 0.01]. Adjusted means demonstrated higher depression and distress scores for women with perceived unmet informational needs.


Overall, loss of fertility was an emotionally challenging experience for women regardless of its cause. Cancer survivors were found to have lower scores of physical QOL and sexual function than non-cancer infertile women. Unmet informational needs about reproductive options appeared to be associated with negative mood and increased distress in cancer survivors.

Implications for cancer survivors

Targeted interventions to increase knowledge about reproductive options could be of great assistance to women pursuing parenthood in cancer survivorship. Additionally, intervention studies to improve sexual functioning and QOL in women with cancer-related infertility should be a priority of future research.


Cancer Infertility Survivorship Quality of life Third-party parenting 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Carter
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leigh Raviv
    • 1
  • Linda Applegarth
    • 5
  • Jennifer S. Ford
    • 1
    • 3
  • Laura Josephs
    • 5
  • Elizabeth Grill
    • 5
  • Charles Sklar
    • 3
  • Yukio Sonoda
    • 2
  • Raymond E. Baser
    • 4
  • Richard R. Barakat
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Gynecology ServiceMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of BiostatisticsMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.The Ronald O Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine/Weill Medical College of Cornell University/New York Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA

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