Advertisement

Follow-up care for young adult survivors of cancer: lessons from pediatrics

  • Christine Eiser
  • Kate Absolom
  • Diana Greenfield
  • John Snowden
  • Robert Coleman
  • Barry Hancock
  • Helena Davies
  • On behalf of Late Effects Group, Sheffield (LEGS)
Article

Abstract

Introduction

Recent advances in treatment of childhood cancer have resulted in overall survival rates approaching 75%, but approximately two-thirds experience late-effects related to the disease or treatment. Consequently, recommendations for comprehensive follow-up have been made. As the number of survivors of adult cancers increase, similar concerns about how to provide follow-up and achieve optimal quality of life are being raised. In this paper we propose that management of cancer survivors diagnosed in young adulthood (18–45 years) could benefit from experience gained treating survivors of childhood cancer.

Materials and methods

We reviewed research relating to differences in survival rates and late-effects; current arrangements for follow-up; effectiveness; and problems in organization of follow-up separately for survivors of child and adult cancers.

Results

A number of models of follow-up were identified. Rationale for follow-up included early identification and treatment of second cancer and late-effects, health promotion and screening. Increasing numbers of survivors and range of late-effects were identified as problems in organizing services. A possible solution is risk-stratified follow-up, currently being developed in pediatrics.

Conclusions

New models of follow-up are needed that take account of financial costs for health services and survivors’ concerns about their current and future health. Implications for continuing refinement of treatment protocols must be an integral part of the service.

Implications for cancer survivors

International standards are needed to ensure all survivors have access to expert follow-up care and can benefit from new information that might lead to earlier treatment of late-effects.

Keywords

Follow-up Pediatric Young adult Late-effects Cancer survivors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all members of the Late Effects Group, Sheffield for comments on an earlier version of this paper. Diana Greenfield and Kate Absolom are supported by the Weston Park Cancer Appeal. Diana Greenfield is also supported by the Laura Crane Trust.

References

  1. 1.
    Absolom, K., Greenfield, D., Ross, R., Horne, B., Davies, H., Glaser, A., et al. (2006). Predictors of clinic satisfaction among adult survivors of childhood cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 42, 1421–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agboola, O., Grunfeld, E., Coyle, D., & Perry, G. (1997). Costs and benefits of routine follow-up after curative treatment for endometrial cancer. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 157, 879–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albitton, K., & Bleyer, W. (2003). The management of cancer in the older adolescent. European Journal of Cancer, 39, 2584–2599.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Cancer Society (1997). Cancer facts and figures. Atlanta: GA.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amir, Z., Scully, J., & Borrill, C. (2004). The professional role of breast cancer nurses in multi-disciplinary breast cancer care teams. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 8, 306–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson-Hanley, C., Sherman, M., Riggs, R., Agocha, V., & Compas, B. (2003). Neuropsychological effects of treatments for adults with cancer: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 967–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrykowski, M., Altmaier, E., Barnett, R., Burish, T., Gingrich, R., & Henslee-Downey, P. (1990). Cognitive dysfunction in adult survivors of allogeneic marrow transplantation: Relationship to dose of total body irradiation. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 6, 269–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aziz, N., & Rowland, J. (2003). Trends and advances in cancer survivorship research: Challenge and opportunity. Seminars in Radiation Oncology, 13, 248–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barakat, L., Kazak, A., Gallagher, P., Meeske, K., & Stuber, M. (2000). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and stressful life events predict the long-term adjustment of survivors of childhood cancer and their mothers. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 7, 189–196.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bazeos, A., Al Sdhawaf, T., Lower, A., Wilson, C., & Grudzinskas, J. G. (1999). Preservation of reproductive capacity in cancer patients. Reproductive Technology, 10, 42–49.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beaver, K., & Luker, K. (2005). Follow-up in breast cancer clinics: Reassuring for patients rather than detecting recurrence. Psychooncology, 14, 94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bellizzi, K., Rowland, J., Jeffery, D., & McNeel, T. (2005). Health behaviors of cancer survivors: Examining opportunities for cancer control intervention. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 8884–8893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bishop, J., Corrie, P., Evans, J., Gore, M. E., Hall, P. N., Kirkham, N., et al. (2002). UK guidelines for the management of cutaneous melanoma. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 55, 46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bleyer, W., Tejeda, H., Murphy, S., Robison, L. L., Ross, J. A., Pollack, B. H., & Severson R. K. (1997). National cancer clinical trials: Children have equal access; adolescents do not. Journal of Adolescent Health, 21, 374–375.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cancer Research UK (2005). News and Resources web site, CancerStats, http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    CancerStats Monograph (2004). London: Cancer Research UK.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carlson-Green, B., Morris, R., & Krawiecki, N. (1995). Family and illness predictors of outcome in pediatric brain tumors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 769–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carter, J., Rowland, K., Chi, D., Brown, C., Abu-Rustum, N., Castiel, M., et al. (2005). Gynecologic cancer treatment and the impact of cancer-related infertility. Gynecologic Oncology, 97, 90–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Castel, P., Negrier, S., & Boissel, J. (2006). Why don’t cancer patients enter clinical trials? A review. European Journal of Cancer, 42, 1744–1748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Celcalupo, A. (1994). Childhood cancers: Medical issues. In R. Olson, L. Mullins, J. Gillman, & J. Chaney (Eds.), The sourcebook of pediatric psychology (pp. 90–97). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chessells, J. M. (2000). Recent advances in management of acute leukaemia. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 82, 438–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Children’s Oncology Group (COG) (2006). Long-term follow-up for survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adult cancers.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Churn, M., & Kelly, V. (2001). Outpatient follow-up after treatment for early breast cancer: Updated results after 5 years. Clinical Oncology, 13, 187–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Collins, R., Bekker, H., & Dodwell, D. (2004). Follow-up care of patients treated for breast cancer: A structured review. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 30, 19–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Connell, S., Patterson, C., & Newman, B. (2006). Issues and concerns of young Australian women with breast cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer, 14, 419–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Courneya, K. S., Mackey, J. R., Bell, G. J., Jones, L. W., Field, C. J., & Fairey, A. S. (2003). Randomized controlled trial of exercise training in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: Cardiopulmonary and quality of life outcomes. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 1660–1668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cox, C., McLaughlin, R., Steen, B., & Hudson, M. (2006). Predicting and modifying substance use in childhood cancer survivors: Application of a conceptual model. Oncology Nursing Forum, 33, 51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D’Angio, G. (2004). From certain death to benign lumps: Paediatric cancer transformed. European Journal of Cancer, 40, 1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dancey, A., Rayatt, S., Courthold, J., & Roberts, J. (2005). Views of melanoma patients on routine follow-up care. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 58, 245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Demark-Wahnefried, W., Aziz, N., Rowland, J., & Pinto, B. (2005). Riding the crest of the teachable moment: Promoting long-term health after the diagnosis of cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 5814–5830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dewar, J. (1995). Follow up in breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 310, 685–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dewar, J., & Kerr, G. (1985). Value of routine follow up of women treated for early carcinoma of the breast. British Medical Journal, 291(6507), 1464–1467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Donnelly, J., Mack, P., & Donaldson, L. A. (2001). Follow-up of breast cancer: Time for a new approach? International Journal of Clinical Practice, 55, 431–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Doyle, C. (2006). Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: An American Cancer Society Guide for Informed Choices. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 56, 323–353.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Earle, E., Davies, H., Greenfield, D., Ross, R., & Eiser, C. (2005). Follow-up care for childhood cancer survivors: A focus group analysis. European Journal of Cancer, 41, 2882–2886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eiser, C., Absolom, K., Greenfield, D., Glaser, A., Horne, B., Waite, H., et al. (in press). Follow-up after childhood cancer: Evaluation of a three-level model. European Journal of Cancer.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eiser, C., Levitt, G., Leiper, A., Havermans, T., & Donovan, C. (1996). Clinic audit for long term survivors of childhood cancer. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 75, 405–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Emmons, K., Butterfield, R., Puleo, E., Park, E. R., Mertens, A., Gritz, E. R., et al. (2003). Smoking among participants in the childhood cancer survivors cohort: The partnership for health study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eshelman, D., Landier, W., Sweeney, T., Hester, A. L., Hudson, M. M., & Forte, K. (2004). Facilitating care for childhood cancer survivors: Integrating children’s oncology group long-term follow up guidelines and health links in clinical practice. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 21, 271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Finkelstein, J. (2006). Life insurance: Coming to a cancer survivor near you. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 98, 730–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ganz, P. (2005). A teachable moment for oncologists: Cancer survivors, 10 million strong and growing! Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 5458–5460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ganz, P., Greendale, G., Petersen, L., Kahn, B., & Bower, J. (2003). Breast cancer in younger women: Reproductive and late health effects of treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 4184–4193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gatta, G., Capocaccia, R., Stiller, C., Kaatsch, P., Berrino, F., & Terenziani, M. (2005). Childhood cancer survival trends in Europe: A EUROCARE Working Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 3742–3751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gatta, G., Corazziari, I., Magnani, C., Peris-Bonet, R., Roazzi, P., & Stiller, C. (2003). Childhood cancer survival in Europe. Annals of Oncology, 14, 119–127.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    GIVIO (1994). Impact of follow-up testing on survival and health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients. A multicenter randomized controlled trial. The GIVIO Investigators. JAMA, 271, 1587–1592.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Glynne-Jones, R., Chait, I., & Thomas, S. (1997). When and how to discharge cancer survivors in long term remission from follow-up: The effectiveness of a contract. Clinical Oncology, 9, 25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gotay, C., & Muraoka, M. (1998). Quality of life in long-term survivors of adult-onset cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 90, 656–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gregory, J., & Rielly, J. (2004). Body composition and obesity. In H. Wallace & D. Green (Eds.), Late effects of childhood cancer (pp. 147–161). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grunfeld, E., Mant, D., Vessey, M. P., & Fitzpatrick, R. (1995). Specialist and general practice views on routine follow-up of breast cancer patients in general practice. Family Practitioner, 12, 60–65.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Grunfeld, E., Mant, D., Yudkin, P., Adewuyi-Dalton, R., Cole, D., Stewart, J., et al. (1996). Routine follow up of breast cancer in primary care: Randomised trial. British Medical Journal, 313, 665–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Haupt, R., Byrne, J., Connelly, R., Mostow, E. N., Austin, D. F., Holmes, G. R., et al. (1992). Smoking habits in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 20, 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hawkins, M., & Stevens, M. (1996). The long term survivors. British Medical Bulletin, 52, 898–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hewitt, M., Greenfield, S., & Stovall, E. (Eds.) (2006). From cancer patient to cancer survivor: Lost in transition. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hollen, P., & Hobbie, W. (1996). Decision-making and risk behaviours of cancer surviving adolescents and their peers. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 13, 121–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hudson, M. (2004). Healthy lifestyle and prevention strategies. In H. Wallace & D. Green (Eds.), Late effects of childhood cancer (pp. 366–375). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hudson, M., Tyc, V. L., Jayawardene, D., Gattuso, J., Quarqnenti, A., Greenwald, C., et al. (1999). Feasibility of implementing health promotion interventions to improve health-related quality of life. International Journal of Cancer, 12, 138–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jenkinson, H., Hawkins, M., Stiller, C., Winter, D., Marsden, H., & Stevens, M. (2004). Long-term population-based risks of second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer in Britain. British Journal of Cancer, 91, 1905–1910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kadan-Lottick, N. S., Robison, L. L., Gurney, J. G., Neglia, J. P., Yasui, Y., Hayashi, R., et al. (2002). Childhood cancer survivors’ knowledge about their past diagnosis and treatment. JAMA, 287, 1832–1839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kattlove, H., & Winn, R. (2003). Ongoing care of patients after primary treatment for their cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 53, 172–196.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Katz, S., Hislop, T., Thomas, D., & Larson, E. (1993). Delay from symptom to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in Washington State and British Columbia. Medical Care, 31, 264–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kazak, A., McClure, K., Alderfer, M., Hwang, W.-T., Crump, T. A., Le Lan, T., et al. (2004). Cancer-related parental beliefs: The Family Illness Beliefs Inventory (FIBI). Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 531–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kornblith, A., Herndon, J., Zuckerman, E., Cella, D. F., Chern, E., Wolchok, S., et al. (1998). Comparison of psychosocial adaptation of advanced stage Hodgkin’s disease and acute leukemia survivors. Annals of Oncology, 9, 297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lackner, H., Benesch, M., Schagerl, S., Kerbl, R., Schwinger, W., & Urban, C. (2000). Prospective evaluation of late effects after childhood cancer therapy with a follow-up over 9 years. European Journal of Pediatrics, 159, 750–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Langeveld, N., Grootenhuis, M., Voute, P., & de Haan, R. J. (2004). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatriatric Blood & Cancer, 42, 604–610.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mackie, E., Hill, J., Kondryn, H., & McNally, R. (2000). Adult psychological outcomes in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and Wilm’s tumour: A controlled study. Lancet, 355, 1310–1314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Maguire, P. (1994). ABC of breast diseases. Psychological aspects. British Medical Journal, 309, 1649–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    McBride, C., Emmons, K., & Lipkus, I. (2003). Understanding the potential of teachable moments: The case of smoking cessation. Health Education Research, 18, 156–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mertens, A., Yasui, Y., Neglia, J., Potter, J. D., Nesbit, M.E., Jr., Ruccione, K., et al. (2001). Late mortality experience in five-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: The childhood cancer survivor study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 19, 3163–3172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miller, S. (1995). Monitoring versus blunting styles of coping with cancer influence the information patients want and need about their disease. Cancer, 76, 167–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mills, E., Seely, D., Rachlis, B., Griffith, L., Wu, P., Wilson, K., et al. (2006). Barriers to participation in clinical trials of cancer: A meta-analysis and systematic review of patient-reported factors. Lancet Oncol, 7, 141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mullan, F. (1985). Seasons of survival: Reflections of a physician with cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 313, 270–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Narsavage, G., & Romeo, E. (2003). Education and support needs of younger and older cancer survivors. Applied Nursing Research, 16, 103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    National Cancer Research Institute (2004). 3 year progress report 2001–2004. London: NCRI.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2002). Improving outcomes in breast cancer: Manual Update.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Neglia, J. P., Friedman, D. L., Yasui, Y., Mertens, A. C., Hammond, S., Stovall, M., et al. (2001). Second malignant neoplasms in five-year survivors of childhood cancer: Childhood cancer survivor study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93, 618–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Neglia, J. P., & Nesbit, M. E. (1993). Care and treatment of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Cancer, 71, 3386–3391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nixon, A., Neuberg, D., Hayes, D., Gelman, R., Connolly, J., Schnitt, S., et al. (1994). Relationship of patient age to pathologic features of the tumor and prognosis for patients with stage I or II breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 12, 888–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Noll, R., MacLean, W., Whitt, J., Kaleita, T. A., Stehbens, J. A., Waskerwitz, M. J., et al. (1997). Behavioral adjustment and social functioning of long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: Parent and teacher reports. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 827–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nordevang, E., Callmer, E., Marmur, A., & Holm, L. E. (1992). Dietary intervention in breast cancer patients: Effects on food choice. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 387–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oeffinger, K., Eshelman, D., Tomlinson, G., & Buchanan, G. (1998). Programs for adult survivors of childhood cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 16, 2864–2867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Oeffinger, K., Eshelman, D., Tomlinson, G., Buchanan, G., & Foster B. (2000). Grading of late effects in young adult survivors of childhood cancer followed in an ambulatory adult setting. Cancer, 88, 1687–1695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Oeffinger, K., & McCabe, M. (2006). Models for delivering survivorship care. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 5117–5124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Oeffinger, K., Mertens, A., Hudson, M., Gurney, J. G., Casillas, J., Cheng, H., et al. (2004). Health care of young adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Oeffinger, K., Mertens, A., Sklar, C., Kawashima, C. A., Hudson, M. M., Meadows, A. T., et al. (2006). Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 1572–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ostroff, J., Jacobsen, P., Moadel, A., Spiro, R. H., Shah, J. P., Strong, E. W., et al. (1995). Prevalence and predictors of continued tobacco use after treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. Cancer, 75, 569–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pennery, E., & Mallet, J. (2000). A preliminary study of patients’ perceptions of routine follow-up after treatment for breast cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 4, 138–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Peto, R., Darby, S., Deo, H., Silcocks, P., Whitlley, E., & Doll, R. (2000). Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: Combination of national statistics with two case-control studies. British Medical Journal, 321, 323–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pierce, J. P., Faerber, S., Wright, F. A., et al. (1997). Feasibility of a randomized trial of high vegetable diet to prevent breast cancer recurrence. Nutrition and Cancer, 28, 282–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pinkerton, C., Cushing, P., & Sepion, B. (1994). Childhood cancer management. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pinto, B., & Trunzo, J. (2005). Health behaviors during and after a cancer diagnosis. Cancer, 104, 2614–2623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pollack, L., Greer, G., Rowland, J., Miller, A., Doneski, D., Coughlin, S. S., et al. (2005). Cancer survivorship: A new challenge in comprehensive cancer control. Cancer Causes Control, 16, 51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ries, L. A. G., Eisner, M. P., Kosary, C. L., Brawley, O. W., Smith, M. A., Unquerleider, R. S., et al. (Eds.). SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975–2001. Bethesda MD: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/car/1975_2001.
  94. 94.
    Robison, L., & Mertens, A. (1993). Second tumors after treatment of childhood malignancies. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 7, 401–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Robison, L. (1993). Issues in the consideration of intervention strategies in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Cancer, 71, 3406–3410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Robison, L. L., Buckley, J. D., & Bunin, G. (1995). Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: The Children’s Cancer Group epidemiology program. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 111–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rousillon, E., Pariene, J., Hostyn, B., Merian, G., Ferriere, J., & Le Guillou, M. (1999). Fertilite masculine apres chimiotherapie: A propos d’une serie de 26 patients traites pour cancer du testicule stade 1. Andrologie, 9, 42–47.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rowland, J. (2005). Looking beyond cure: Pediatric cancer as a model. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rubin, P., Constine, L., Fajardo, L., Phillips, T., & Wasserman, T. (1995). EORTC Late Effects Working Group. Overview of late effects normal tissues (LENT) scoring system. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 35, 9–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schimmer, A., Dranitsaris, G., Ali, V., Falconer, M., & Keating, A. (2002). The autologous blood and marrow transplant long-term follow-up clinic: A model of care for following and treating survivors of transplant. Support Care Cancer, 10, 247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schover, L., Brey, K., Lichtin, A., Lipshultz, L., & Jeha, S. (2002). Knowledge and experience regarding cancer, infertility, and sperm banking in younger male survivors. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 1880–1889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    SIGN (2004). Long term follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer: A national clinical guideline.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Simone, J., & Lyons, J. (1998). Superior cancer survival in children compared to adults: A superior system of care? Background paper for the 1999 report of the National Cancer Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine, “Ensuring Quality Cancer Care.” http://www.iom.edu/ncpb.
  104. 104.
    Skinner, R., Wallace, W., Levitt, G. (Eds.) (2005). Therapy based long-term follow-up: Practice statement: United Kingdom Children’s Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Skinner, R., Wallace, W., & Levitt, G. (2006). Long-term follow-up of people who have survived cancer during childhood. Lancet Oncology, 7, 489–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stevens, M. C. G., Mahler, H., & Parkes, S. (1998). The health status of adult survivors of cancer in childhood. European Journal of Cancer, 34, 694–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Stiller, C. (1994). Population based survival rates for childhood cancer in Britain. British Medical Journal, 309, 1612–1616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stiller, C., & Draper, G. (1989). Treatment centre size, entry to trials, and survival in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 64, 657–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Stiller, C., & Eatock, E. (1999). Patterns of care and survival for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia diagnosed between 1980–1994. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 81, 202–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tannock, I., Ahles, T., Ganz, P., & Van Dam, F. (2004). Cognitive impairment associated with chemotherapy for cancer: Report of a workshop. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 2233–2239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Taskila, T., Lindbohm, M., Martikainen, R., Lehto, U., Hakanen, J., & Hietanen, P. (2006). Cancer survivors’ received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services. Support Care Cancer, 14, 427–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Taylor, A., Hawkins, M., Griffiths, A., Davies, H., Douglas, C., Jenney, M., et al. (2004). Long-term follow up of survivors of childhood cancer in the UK. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 42, 161–168.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tedeschi, R., & Calhoun, L. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tesauro, G., Rowland, J., & Lustig, C. (2002). Survivorship resources for post-treatment cancer survivors. Cancer Practice, 10, 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tyc, V. L., Hadley, W., & Crockett, G. (2001). Prediction of health behaviors in pediatric cancer survivors. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 37, 42–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tyc, V., Rai, S., Lensing, S., Klosky, J., Stewart, D., & Gattuso, J. (2003). Intervention to reduce intentions to use tobacco among pediatric cancer survivors. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 1366–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    van Beek, R., de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S., Hakvoort-Cammel. F., van Der Sluis, I. M., Krenning E. P., Pieters, R., et al. (2006). No difference between prednisolone and dexamethasone treatment in bone mineral density and growth in long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatriatric Blood & Cancer, 46, 88–93.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wallace, W., Blacklay, A., Eiser, C., et al. (2001). Developing strategies for the long term follow up of survivors of childhood cancer. British Medical Journal, 323, 271–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wallace, W., & Green, D. (Eds.) (2004). Late effects of childhood cancer (1st ed.). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Weiner, M. (2000). Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. In R. Bast, D. Kufe, R. Pollock, et al. (Eds.), Cancer medicine. Hamilton, ON: B.C. Decker.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wilson, K., & Amir, Z. (2005). Patient choice following initial treatment for cancer: A literature review. Manchester: Macmillan Research Unit.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yeazel, M., Oeffinger, K., Gurney, J., Mertens, A., Hudson. M. M., Emmons, K. M., et al. (2004). The cancer screening practices of adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer, 100, 631–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zebrack, B. J., Eshelman, D. A., Hudson, M. M., Whitton, J., Packer, R. J., Mertens, A., et al. (2004). Health care for childhood cancer survivors: Insights and perspectives from a Delphi panel of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Cancer, 100, 843–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zebrack, B., Gurney, J., Oeffinger, K., et al. (2004). Psychological outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood brain cancer: A report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 999–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Eiser
    • 1
  • Kate Absolom
    • 1
  • Diana Greenfield
    • 2
  • John Snowden
    • 3
  • Robert Coleman
    • 2
  • Barry Hancock
    • 2
  • Helena Davies
    • 4
  • On behalf of Late Effects Group, Sheffield (LEGS)
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Western BankUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology Weston Park HospitalUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  3. 3.Department of Haematology, Royal Hallamshire HospitalSheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS TrustSheffieldUK
  4. 4.Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield Children’s Hospital, Western BankUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations