Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp 889–897 | Cite as

3D facial model reconstruction, expressions synthesis and animation using single frontal face image

  • Narendra PatelEmail author
  • Mukesh Zaveri
Original Paper


With better understanding of face anatomy and technical advances in computer graphics, 3D face synthesis has become one of the most active research fields for many human-machine applications, ranging from immersive telecommunication to the video games industry. In this paper we proposed a method that automatically extracts features like eyes, mouth, eyebrows and nose from the given frontal face image. Then a generic 3D face model is superimposed onto the face in accordance with the extracted facial features in order to fit the input face image by transforming the vertex topology of the generic face model. The 3D-specific face can finally be synthesized by texturing the individualized face model. Once the model is ready six basic facial expressions are generated with the help of MPEG-4 facial animation parameters. To generate transitions between these facial expressions we use 3D shape morphing between the corresponding face models and blend the corresponding textures. Novelty of our method is automatic generation of 3D model and synthesis face with different expressions from frontal neutral face image. Our method has the advantage that it is fully automatic, robust, fast and can generate various views of face by rotation of 3D model. It can be used in a variety of applications for which the accuracy of depth is not critical such as games, avatars, face recognition. We have tested and evaluated our system using standard database namely, BU-3DFE.


A generic 3D model Morphing Animation MPEG-4 FAPs Texture 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ersotelos N., Dong F.: Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey. Vis. Comput. 24(1), 13–30 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ip H.H.S., Yin L.: Constructing a 3D individualized head model from two orthogonal views. Vis. Comput. 12(5), 254–266 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blanz, V., Vetter, T.: A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPHć699, pp. 187–194. Los angles, CA, USA, (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feng G.C., Yuen P.C.: Recognition of head and shoulder face image using virtual frontal view image. in: IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part A 30(6), 871–882 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu, Z.: A fully automatic system to model faces from a single image. MSR technical report (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parke F.I.: Parameterized models for facial animation. in: IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 2(9), 61–68 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pandzic, I.S., Komiya, R., Forchheimer, R.: MPEG-4 facial animation: the standard, implementation and applications. John Wiley & Sons, New York (2002). ISBN: 0-470-84465-5Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang Y., Zhu Z., Yi B.: Dynamic facial expression analysis and synthesis with MPEG-4 facial animation parameters. in: IEEE Trans. Syst. Video Technol. 18(10), 1383–1396 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yin, L., Sun, X., Wang, Y., Rosato, M.J.: A 3D facial expression database for facial behavior research. In: Proceedings of International Conference on FGR, vol. 2–6, pp. 211–216. UK (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guan, Y.: Automatic 3D face reconstruction based on single 2D image. International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, pp. 1216-1219. Seoul, Korea, 26–28 April (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baek, S., Kim, B., Lee, K.: 3D face model reconstruction from single 2D frontal image. VRCAI 2009, pp. 95–101. Yokohama, Japan, Dec. 14–15, 2009 (ACM 2009, ISBN 978-1-60558-912-1).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yagi Y.: Facial feature extraction from frontal face image. in: IEEE Int. Conf. Signal Process. 2, 1225–1232 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sheng, Y., Sadka, A.H., Kondoz, A.M.: An automatic algorithm for facial feature extraction in video applications. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services (WIAMIS’2004), Lisbon, Portugal, April 21–23, (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sheng Y., Sadka A.H., Kondoz A.M.: Automatic single view based 3D face synthesis for unsupervised multimedia applications. In: IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 18(17), 961–974 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hsu R.L., Abdel-Mottaleb M., Jain A.K.: Face detection in color image. In: IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(5), 696–706 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hulbert A., Poggio T.: Synthesizing a colour algorithm from examples. Sciences 239, 482–485 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patel N.M., Zaveri M.: 3D Facial model construction and expressions synthesis using a single frontal face image. Int. J. Comput. Graph. SERC 1(1) (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patel, N.M., Patel, P., Zaveri, M.: Parametric model based facial animation synthesis. International conference on emerging trends in computing, pp. 8–10. Kamraj College of engg. & Tech., Tamilnadu, India (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Narendra, P., Mukesh, Z.: 3D model construction and expression synthesis from a single frontal image. International conference on computer and communication technology, MNIT, Allahabad, Sept. 17–19 (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krindis S., Pitas I.: Statistical analysis of human facial expressions. J. Inf. Hiding Multimedia Signal Process. 1(3), 241–260 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pighin, F., Hecker, J., Lishinski, D., Szeliski, R., Salesin, D.H.: Synthesizing realistic facial expressions from photographs. In: Proceedings of SIGTGRAPH, pp. 75–84 (1998)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee W., Magnenat-Thalmann N.: Head modeling from pictures and morphing in 3D with image metamorphosis based on triangulation, vol. 1537, pp. 254–267. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Narendra, P., Mukesh, Z.: 3D facial model construction and animation from a single frontal face image. International conference on communications and signal processing, NIT, Calcuit, Feb. 10–12, (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer EngineeringBVM Engineering CollegeV.V.NagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer EngineeringSVNITSuratIndia

Personalised recommendations