Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 145–154 | Cite as

Multiple spatial watermarking technique in color images

  • Ibrahim NasirEmail author
  • Ying Weng
  • Jianmin Jiang
  • Stanley Ipson
Original Paper


This paper presents a novel multiple digital watermarking technique for the copyright protection of digital color images. In order to improve the robustness against cropping attacks, a binary watermark image is divided into four parts. Each is encrypted by a secret key and embedded into different regions of the blue component of the color image in the spatial domain. Watermark extraction is based on the comparisons between the original intensity pixel values and the corresponding watermarked intensity pixel values in blocks of size 8 × 8. The watermark-extracted bits are determined using the probabilities of detecting bit ‘1’ or bit ‘0’. The watermark can be extracted in several parts depending on the size of the host image, but only four of these are selected by a correlation coefficient detector and used to reconstruct the extracted watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme successfully makes the watermark perceptually invisible and robust for a wide range of attacks, including JPEG-loss compression, median filtering, low pass filtering, rotation, rotation-scaling, rotation-crop, image cropping, image scaling, and self-similarity attacks.


Multiple digital watermarking Spatial domain Watermark Copyright protection 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Petitcolas F., Anderson R., Kuhn M.: Information hiding-a survey. Proc. IEEE 87(7), 1062–1078 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hartung F., Kutter M.: Multimedia watermarking techniques. Proc. IEEE 87(7), 1079–1107 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Vleeschouwer C., Delaigle J., Macq B.: Invisibility and application functionalities in perceptual watermarking an overview. Proc. IEEE 90(1), 64–77 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee Y.K., Chen L.H.: High capacity image steganographic model. IEE Proceedings Vision, Image and Signal Processing 147, 288–294 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darmstaedter V., Delaigle J.F., Quisquater J.J., Macq B.B.: Low cost spatial watermarking. Comput. Graph. 22(4), 417–424 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang-Hsing L., Yeuan-Kuen L.: An adaptive digital image watermarking technique for copyright protection. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 1005–1015 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kimpan S., Lasakul A., Chitwong S.: Variable block size based adaptive watermarking in spatial domain. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Conf. Commun. Inf. Technol. 1, 374–377 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Verma B., Jain S., Agarwal D., Phadikar A.: A new color image watermarking scheme. INFOCOMP J. comput. Sci. 5(2), 37–42 (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hueske K., Geldmacher J., Gotz J.: Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes. Adv. Radio Sci. 5, 209–214 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang P.S., Chiang C.S., Chang C.P., Tu T.M.: Robust spatial watermarking technique for colour images via direct saturation adjustment. IEE Proc. Vis. Image Signal Process. 152(5,7), 561–574 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kutter M., Jordan F., Bossen F.: Digital watermarking of color images using amplitude modulation. J. Electron. Imaging 7, 326–332 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barni M., Bartolini F., Piva A.: Multichannel watermarking of color images. Proc. IEEE Trans. Circuit Syst. Video Technol. 12(3), 142–156 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu L., Ren-Hou L., Qi G.: A new watermarking method based on DWT green component of color image. Proc. Int. Conf. Mach. Learn. Cybern. 6, 3949–3954 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cheng L.M., Cheng L.L., Chan C.K.: Digital watermarking based on frequency random position insertion. Control Autom. Robot. Vis. Conf. 2, 977–982 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raval M.S., Rege P.P: Discrete wavelet transform based multiple watermarking scheme. Int. Conf. Convergent Technol. Asia Pac. Reg. 3, 935–938 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jin C., Su T., Pan L.G.: Multiple Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on ICA. In: Eighth Int. Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, WIAMIS ’07, p. 70 (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cox I.J, Kilian J., Leighton F.T., Shamoon T.: Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petitcolas F.A.P.: Watermarking schemes evaluation. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 58–64 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petitcolas F.A.P., Anderson R.J., Kuhn M.G.: Attacks on copyright marking systems. In: Proc. Information Hiding, 2nd Int, vol. 1525. LNCS, Springer, Workshop, Portland, Oregon, USA, pp. 218–238 (1998)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Qi X., Qi J.: A robust content-based digital image watermarking scheme. Signal Process. 87(6), 1264–1280 (2007)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibrahim Nasir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ying Weng
    • 1
  • Jianmin Jiang
    • 1
  • Stanley Ipson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of InformaticsUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

Personalised recommendations