Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 241–250 | Cite as

Robust image watermarking using non-regular wavelets

  • Renato J. Cintra
  • Todor V. Cooklev
Original Paper


An approach to watermarking digital images using non-regular wavelets is advanced. Non-regular transforms spread the energy in the transform domain. The proposed method leads at the same time to increased image quality and increased robustness with respect to lossy compression. The approach provides robust watermarking by suitably creating watermarked messages that have energy compaction and frequency spreading. Our experimental results show that the application of non-regular wavelets, instead of regular ones, can furnish a superior robust watermarking scheme. The generated watermarked data is more immune against non-intentional JPEG and JPEG2000 attacks.


Robust watermarking Non-regular wavelets JPEG compression 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cannons J., Moulin P.: Design and statistical analysis of a hash-aided image watermarking system. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(10), 1393–1408 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coatrieux, G., Lecornu, L., Sankur, B., Roux, Ch.: A review of image watermarking applications in healthcare. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 4691–4694 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Daubechies, I.: Ten lectures on wavelets. In: CBMS, NSF Regional Conference Series in Applied Mathematics. SIAM (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Duda R.O., Hart P.E., Stork D.G.: Pattern Classification. Wiley-Interscience, London (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eguchi S., Copas J.: Interpreting Kullback–Leibler divergence with the Neyman–Pearson lemma. J. Multivar. Anal. 97(9), 2034–2040 (2006)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Engin M., Çidam O., Engin E.Z.: Wavelet transformation based watermarking technique for human electrocardiogram (ECG). J. Med. Syst. 29(6), 589–594 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fiebig U., Schnell M.: Correlation properties of m-sequences. Electron. Lett. 29(20), 1753–1755 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furht B., Kirovski D. (eds.): Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Golay M.: Complementary series. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 7(2), 82–87 (1961)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hamming R.W.: Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. Dover, New York (1986)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hinkelmann K., Kempthorne O.: Design and Analysis of Experiments, Introduction to Experimental Design. Wiley-Interscience, London (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jayant N., Johnston J., Safranek R.: Signal compression based on models of human perception. Proc. IEEE 81(10), 1385–1422 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jiang J., Armstrong A.: Data hiding approach for efficient image indexing. Electron. Lett. 38, 1424–1425 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kay S.M.: Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Detection Theory. Signal Processing Series. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1998)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Langelaar G.C., Setyawan I., Lagendijk R.L.: Watermarking digital image and video data: State-of-the-art overview. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 20–46 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin J.: Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37(1), 145–151 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lu H., Shen R., Chung F.-L.: Fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication. Electron. Lett. 39(12), 898–900 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meerwald, P., Uhl, A.: A survey of wavelet-domain watermarking algorithms. In: Proceedings of the SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, vol. 4314, pp. 518–526, San Jose, CA (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ming, L., Yun, L., Xiang, Z., Jian, L., Yonghong, Y.: Authentication and quality monitoring based on audio watermark for analog AM shortwave broadcasting. In: Proceedings Third International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, vol. 2, pp. 263–266 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mukherjee D.P., Maitra S., Acton S.T.: Spatial domain digital watermarking of multimedia objects for buyer authentication. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 6(1), 1–15 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ni Z., Shi Y.-Q., Ansari N., Su W.: Reversible data hiding. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16(3), 354–362 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pei S.-C., Guo J.-M.: Hybrid pixel-based data hiding and block-based watermarking for error-diffused halftone images. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13(8), 867–884 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Potdar, V.M., Han, S., Chang, E.: A survey of digital image watermarking techniques. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, pp. 709–716 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rey C., Dugelay J.-L.: A survey of watermarking algorithms for image authentication. EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process. 6, 613–621 (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schyndel, R., Tirkel, A., Mee, N., Osborne, C.: A digital watermark. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. 86–90, Austin, TX (1994)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Signal & Image Processing Institute. The USC-SIPI image database., February (2008)
  27. 27.
    Strang G., Nguyen T.: Wavelets and Filter Banks. Wellesley-Cambridge Press, Wellesley (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang Z., Bovik A.: A universal image quality index. IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9(3), 81–84 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wornell G.W.: Emerging applications of multirate signal processing and wavelets in digital communications. Proc. IEEE 84(4), 586–603 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of StatisticsFederal University of PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.IPFW Wireless Technology CenterIndiana University Purdue University Fort WayneFort WayneUSA

Personalised recommendations