Archaeologies

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 170–221 | Cite as

A Teapot, a House, or Both? The Material Possessions of Irish Women’s California Assemblages

Research

Abstract

Using a woman-centered approach, artifact assemblages and background documents are analyzed to discern gender behavior and ethnic variations in women’s work—cooking, dining, housecleaning—in more frivolous areas—flowers, pets, girls’ toys—and personal adornment. Issues of gender bias are discussed. The data show that negative evidence (absence vs. presence) is, at times, misleading and must be carefully considered. Detailed study of the artifacts connected with Irish women suggests their gender values that organized their lives differed from those of Anglo-American women who had a voice in small expressive purchases while men made final decisions on major household purchases. Irish women owned small items too. However, a crucial distinction was an element not covered by the archaeology: a house of their own and owner-occupied, a fact solely visible in documents.

Key words

Historical archaeology Gender archaeology Artifact analysis Irish assemblages Irish home ownership 

Résumé

À l’aide d’une approche axée sur les femmes, des assemblages d’artefacts et des documents d’information sont analysés afin de distinguer le comportement entre les sexes et les variations ethniques dans le travail des femmes, notamment la cuisine, les repas, le ménage ou les domaines plus frivoles – fleurs, animaux, jouets pour filles – et la parure. Les problèmes relatifs au sexisme sont examinés. Les données montrent que les éléments négatifs (absence par opposition à présence) sont parfois trompeurs et qu’ils doivent être soigneusement évalués. L’étude détaillée des objets associés aux Irlandaises permet de penser que les valeurs de sexe qui organisaient leur vie différaient de celles des femmes anglo-américaines qui pouvaient s’exprimer pour les petits achats subjectifs, tandis que les hommes américains prenaient les décisions finales pour les achats ménagers importants. Les Irlandaises achetaient aussi de petits objets. Toutefois, une différence majeure a consisté en un élément non couvert par l’archéologie : leur maison dont ils étaient propriétaires, une information visible uniquement dans les documents.

Resumen

Utilizando un enfoque centrado en la mujer, se analizan colecciones de objetos y documentación de antecedentes para discernir el comportamiento de género y las diferencias étnicas en las tareas de las mujeres, como la cocina, la cena y la limpieza del hogar o aspectos más frívolos, como las flores, las mascotas, los juguetes de las niñas y los adornos personales. Se debaten cuestiones relacionadas con los prejuicios de género. Los datos demuestran que las pruebas negativas (ausencia frente a presencia) son a veces engañosas y es necesario evaluarlas cuidadosamente. Un estudio pormenorizado sobre objetos relacionados con las mujeres irlandesas sugiere que los valores de género que conformaban sus vidas eran distintos a los de las mujeres angloamericanas, que tenían voz y voto en pequeñas compras expresivas, aunque eran los hombres americanos quienes tenían la última palabra sobre las compras más importantes del hogar. Las mujeres irlandesas también compraban pequeños objetos. Sin embargo, hay una diferenciación crucial que no ha cubierto por la arqueología: los hogares propios y ocupados por el propietario, un hecho únicamente visible en los documentos.

References

  1. Agnew, Aileen B. 1985. Women and Property in Early 19th-century Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Historical Archaeology 29(1):62–74.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous 1883. Children’s Food. Medical News 42:76–77.Google Scholar
  3. Arensberg, Conrad, Kimball, Solon T. (1968) Family and Community in Ireland (2nd ed.). Harvard University PressCambridge, MA.,Google Scholar
  4. Armitage, Susan H. 1992. History: An Introduction. Pacific Historical Review 61(4):459–462.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, Joseph E. 1907. Oakland and Roundabout. Sunset Magazine October:534–554.Google Scholar
  6. Beckham, Polly 2002. A Little Cache Of Green: The Savings Habits of Irish Immigrant Women in 1850 Philadelphia. Pennsylvania History 69(2):230–265.Google Scholar
  7. Beecher, Catharine E., Stowe, Harriet B. (1869) The American Family Home, J. B. Ford & CompanyNew York.,Google Scholar
  8. Benson, Susan P. (2007) Household Accounts: Working Class Family Incomes in the Interwar United States, Columbia University PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  9. Blauberg, Barbara (2007) Making San Francisco American: Cultural Frontiers in the Urban West, 1846–1906, University Press of KansasLawrence, Kansas.,Google Scholar
  10. Bourke, Joanna 1991. The Best of All Home Rulers: The Economic Power of Women in Ireland, 1880–1914. Irish Economic and Society History 18:224–237.Google Scholar
  11. Boyle, Phelim P., O’Grada, Cormac 1986. Fertility Trends, Excess Mortality, and the Great Irish Famine. Population Studies 23(4):543–562.Google Scholar
  12. Branca, Patricia 1975. A New Perspective on Women’s Work: A Comparative Typology. Journal of Social History 9(2):129–153.Google Scholar
  13. Brighton, Stephen A. 2001. Prices That Suit the Times: Shopping for Ceramics at the Five Points. Historical Archaeology 35(3):16–30.Google Scholar
  14. Brighton, Stephen A. (2006) To Begin Again Elsewhere. In Unearthing Hidden Ireland: Historical Archaeology in County Roscommonpp. 193–216, edited by Charles E Orser Jr., Wordwell PressBray, Ireland.,Google Scholar
  15. Brighton, Stephen A. 2008. Degrees of Alienation: The Material Evidence of the Irish and Irish American Experience, 1850–1910. Historical Archaeology 42(4):132–153.Google Scholar
  16. Brighton, Stephen A. (2010) Historical Archaeology of the Irish Diaspora: A Transnational Approach, University of Tennessee PressKnoxville.,Google Scholar
  17. Brighton, Stephen A., Levon-White, J. (2006) Teacups, Saucers, and Dinner Plates: English Ceramic Exports to Ballykilcline. In Unearthing Hidden Ireland: Historical Archaeology in County Roscommonpp. 109–139, edited by Charles E Orser Jr., Wordwell PressBray, Ireland.,Google Scholar
  18. Brown M., and Philips P. 1986. Competition, Racism, and Hiring Practices Among California’s Manufacturers, 1860–1882. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 40(1):61–74.Google Scholar
  19. Calhoun, Craig (1994) Social Theory and the Politics of Identity, Wiley-BlackwellCambridge, MA.,Google Scholar
  20. Casas, Maria R. (2007) Married to a Daughter of the Land: Spanish-Mexican Women and Inter-Ethnic Marriage in California, 1820–1880, University of Nevada PressReno.,Google Scholar
  21. Clear, Catriona (2000) Women of the House: Women’s Household Work in Ireland, 1926–1961, Irish Academic PressDublin, Ireland.,Google Scholar
  22. Clear, Catriona (2008) Social Change and Everyday life in Ireland, 1850–1914, Manchester University PressManchester, England.,Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, Lizabeth A. (1986) Embellishing a Life of Labor: An Interpretation of the Material Culture of American Working Class Homes. In Common Places: Readings in American Vernacular Architecturepp. 261–280, edited by Dell Uptonand John M Vlach, University of Georgia PressAthens, GA.,Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, Marilyn (1995) The Migration Experience of Female-Headed Households: Gilford, Co. Down, to Greenwich, New York, 1880–1910. In Irish Women and Irish Migration (The Irish World Wide, V. 4)pp. 130–145, edited by Patrick O’Sullivan, Leicester University PressLondon.,Google Scholar
  25. Conley, Caroline A. 1995. No Pedestals: Women and Violence in Late Nineteenth-Century Ireland. Journal of Social History 28(4):801–818.Google Scholar
  26. Cook, Lauren, Yamin, Rebecca, McCarthy, John P. 1996. Shopping as Meaningful Social Action: Toward a Redefinition of Consumption in Historical Archaeology. Historical Archaeology 30(4):50–65.Google Scholar
  27. Costello, Julia 1998. Bread Fresh from the Oven: Memories of Breadbaking in the California Mother Lode. Historical Archaeology 32(1):66–73.Google Scholar
  28. Coyne, Joseph S. 1850. A Scene in the Life of an Unprotected Female: A Farce in One Act. French’s Minor Drama, No. 233. S. French, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Cross, Ira B. (1927) Financing an Empire: History of Banking in California1,, S. J. Clarke Publishing CoSan Francisco, CA.,Google Scholar
  30. Crown, Patricia L. (ed.) (2002) Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, SAR PressSanta Fe, NM.,Google Scholar
  31. Cullen, Mary 1994. History Women and History Men: The Politics of Women’s History. History Ireland 2/2:31–36. Reprinted in The Irish Women’s History Reader, edited by Alan Hayes and Diane Urquhart, pp. 15–20. Routledge, London, 2001.Google Scholar
  32. Dezell, Maureen (2000) Irish America Coming into Clover: The Evolution of a People and a Culture, DoubledayNew York.,Google Scholar
  33. Diner, Hasia A. (1983) Erin’s Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century, Johns Hopkins University PressBaltimore, MD.,Google Scholar
  34. Doucet, Michael J., Weaver, John C. 1985. Material Culture and the North American House: The Era of the Common Man, 1870–1930. The Journal of History 72:560–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Douglas, Mary 1977. Why Do People Want Goods? The Listener, Sept 8 and 15, 1977. Reprinted in Understanding the Enterprise Culture, edited by Shaun A. Heap, and Angus Ross, pp. 19–31. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1992.Google Scholar
  36. Douglas, Mary (1982) In the Active Voice, RKPLondon.,Google Scholar
  37. Douglas, Mary, Isherwood, Baron (1979) The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption, Alan LaneLondon.,Google Scholar
  38. Douglas, David 2004. Seeds from the Cypress Project: Part of the Puzzle. In Putting the “There” There: Historical Archaeologies of West Oakland, edited by Mary Praetzellis and Adrian Praetzellis, pp. 156–157. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for Caltrans, District 4, Oakland, California.Google Scholar
  39. Downing, Andrew J. (1859) The Architecture of Country Houses, Appleton & Co.New York.,Google Scholar
  40. Evans, E. Estyn (1977) The Irish World: the Art and Culture of the Irish People, H. N AbramsNew York.,Google Scholar
  41. Evans, E. Estyn (1988) Irish Folk Ways, RoutledgeLondon.,Google Scholar
  42. Fitts, Robert K. 1999. The Archaeology of Middle-Class Domesticity and Gentility in Victorian Brooklyn. Historical Archaeology 33(1):39–62.Google Scholar
  43. Fitts, Robert K. 2001. The Rhetoric of Reform: The Five Points Missions and the Cult of Domesticity. Historical Archaeology 35:115–132.Google Scholar
  44. Fitts, Robert K., and Rebecca Yamin 1996. The Archeology of Domesticity in Victorian Brooklyn. Report Submitted to the Atlantic Housing Corporation, Brooklyn, NY, from John Milner Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  45. Fitzpatrick, David 1986. “A Share of the Honeycomb”: Education, Emigration, and Irish Women. Continuity and Change 1(2):217–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Forsythe, Wes 2007. On the Edge of Improvement: Rathlin Island and the Modern World. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 11(3):221–240. Published Online: 31 July 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Foster, Thomas C. (1846) Letters on the Condition of the Poor in Ireland, Chapman and HallLondon.,Google Scholar
  48. Fuss, Diane (1989) Essentially Speaking, RoutledgeNew York.,Google Scholar
  49. Galloway, Patricia (2006) Material Culture and Text: Exploring the Spaces in and Between. In Historical Archaeologypp. 42–64, edited by Martin Halland Stephen Silliman, Blackwell PublishingMalden, MA.,Google Scholar
  50. George, Regina (2004) Can It! Food Preservation from Household Art to Domestic Science. In Putting the “There” There: Historical Archaeologies of West Oaklandpp. 147–149, edited by Mary Praetzellisand Adrian Praetzellis, Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State UniversityRohnert Park, CA., Prepared for Caltrans, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  51. Gibson, Erica S. (2009) Chapter 7. Life at Home. In South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoodspp. 263–302, edited by Mary Praetzellisand Adrian Praetzellis, Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State UniversityRohnert Park, CA for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.,Google Scholar
  52. Glassie, Henry (1975) Folk Housing in Middle Virginia, University of Tennessee PressKnoxville.,Google Scholar
  53. Glassie, Henry (1982) Passing the Time in Ballymenone, Indiana University PressBloomington, IN.,Google Scholar
  54. Gleason, Philip (1998) Crevecoeur’s Question: Historical Writing on Immigration, Ethnicity, and National Identity. In Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret the Pastpp. 120–143, edited by Anthony Molhoand Gordon S Wood, Princeton University PressPrinceton, NJ.,Google Scholar
  55. Gordon, Milton M. (1964) Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins, Oxford University PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  56. Great Britain, Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Condition of the Poorer Classes in Ireland 1835. Selections of Parochial Examinations Relative to the Destitute Classes of Ireland from the Evidence Received by His Majesty’s Commissioners for Enquiring into the Condition of the Poorer Classes in Ireland, by authority, Great Britain’s Ireland Commission to look into the Condition of the Poorer Classes. Milliken and Son, Dublin.Google Scholar
  57. Griggs, Heather J. 1999. GO gCUIRE DIA RATH AGUS BLATH ORT (God Grant That You Prosper and Flourish): Social and Economic Mobility Among the Irish in Nineteenth Century New York. Historical Archaeology 33(1):87–101.Google Scholar
  58. Guinnane, Timothy W. (1997) The Vanishing Irish: Households, Migrations, and the Rural Economy in Ireland, 1850–191, Princeton University PressPrinceton, NJ.,Google Scholar
  59. Gutman, Marta (2004) Busy as Bees: Women, Work, and Material Culture in West Oakland. In Putting the “There” There: Historical Archaeologies of West Oaklandpp. 173–206, edited by Mary Praetzellisand Adrian Praetzellis, Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State UniversityRohnert Park, CA., Prepared for Caltrans, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  60. Haber, Carole (1983) Beyond Sixty-Five: The Dilemma of Old Age in America’s Past, Cambridge University PressCambridge.,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hardesty, Donald L. 1991. Towards an Historical Archaeology of the Intermountain West. Historical Archaeology 25(3):30–35.Google Scholar
  62. Harris, Richard, Hamnett, Chris 1987. The Myth of the Promised Land: The Social Diffusion of Home Ownership in Britain and North America. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77(2):173–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Harris, Ruth-Ann M. (1994) The Nearest Place That Wasn’t Ireland: Early Nineteenth-Century Irish Labor Migration, University of Iowa PressAmes, IA.,Google Scholar
  64. Harzig, Christiane, Knothe, Marianne, Madovic, Margarita, Mageean, Deidre, Blaschke, Monika (1997) Peasant Maids–City Women: From the European Countryside to Chicago, Cornell University PressIthaca, New York.,Google Scholar
  65. Hirn, Marilyn 1999. 1,000,000 Seeds, What Are They Good For: an Analysis of the Seed Remains from the Cypress Freeway Replacement Project. M.A. thesis, Cultural Resource Management, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA.Google Scholar
  66. Hull, Katherine L. (2006) Forget Me Not: The Role of Women at Ballykilcline. In Unearthing Hidden Ireland: Historical Archaeology at Ballykilcline, Roscommon, Irelandpp. 140–160, edited by Charles E Orser Jr., WordwellWicklow, Ireland.,Google Scholar
  67. Huws, Ursula 1988. Consuming Passions. New Statesman and Society 19(August):31–34.Google Scholar
  68. Jameson, Elizabeth 1988. Toward a Multicultural History of Women in the Western United States. Signs 13:761–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jeffrey, Julie R. 1998. Frontier Women: Civilizing the West? 18401800, Revised ed. Hill and Wang, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Jenson, Joan M., Miller, Darlis A. 1980. The Gentle Tamers Revisited: New Approaches to the History of Women in the American West. The Pacific Historical Review 49(2):173–213.Google Scholar
  71. Katz, Michael B., Doucet, Michael J., Stern, Mark J. (1982) The Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism, Harvard University PressCambridge, MA.,Google Scholar
  72. Kearns, Kevin C. (1994) Dublin Tenement Life: An Oral History, Gill & MacMillan Ltd.Dublin.,Google Scholar
  73. Kelleher, Patricia 2001. Maternal Strategies: Irish Women’s headships of Family Households in Gilded Age Chicago. Journal of Women’s History 13(2):81–104.Google Scholar
  74. Kennedy, Robert E. (1973) The Irish: Emigration, Marriage, and Fertility, University of California PressBerkeley.,Google Scholar
  75. Kenny, Gillian 2006. Anglo-Irish and Gaelic Marriage Laws and Traditions in Late Medieval Ireland. Journal of Medieval History 32:27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kerber, Linda 1988. Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman’s Place: The Rhetoric of Women’s History. Journal of American History 75(1):9–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kinmonth, Claudia (2006) Irish Rural Interiors in Art, Yale University PressNew Haven, CT.,Google Scholar
  78. Kruczek-Aaron, H. 2011. Making Men and Women Blush: Masculinity, Femininity, and Reform in Nineteenth-Century Central New York. In Historical and Archaeological Perspectives on Gender Transformations: from Private to Public, edited by Suzanne M. Spencer-Wood. Forthcoming from Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Lawrence, Susan (2000) Dolly’s Creek: An Archaeology of a Victorian Goldfields Community, Melbourne University PressMelbourne, Australia.,Google Scholar
  80. Lerner, Gerda 1975. Placing Women in History: Definitions and Challenges. Feminist Studies 3(Fall):5–14, Reprinted in The Majority Finds Its Past: Placing Women in History, edited by Gerda Lerner and Linda Kerner, pp. 145–159. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.Google Scholar
  81. Lewis, Kenneth E. (2003) The Tin Worker’s Widow: Gender and the Formation of the Archaeological Record in the South Carolina Backcountry. In Shared Spaces and Divided Places: Material Dimensions of Gender Relations and the American Historical Landscapepp. 83–103, edited by Deborah L Rotman and Ellen-Rose Savulis, University of Tennessee PressKnoxville.,Google Scholar
  82. Lewis, Susan I. 1992. Female Entrepreneurs in Albany, 1840–1885. Business and Economic History 21(1):65–73.Google Scholar
  83. Lewis, Susan I. 1995. Beyond Horatia Alger: Breaking Through Gendered Assumptions About Business “Success” in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America. Business and Economic History 24(1):97–105.Google Scholar
  84. Loren, Diana di Paolo (2007) Contact: Bodies and Spaces in the Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Eastern Woodlands, AltaMira PressLanham, MD.,Google Scholar
  85. Luddy, Maria (1999) Women in Ireland, 1800–1918: A Documentary History, Cork University PressCork, Ireland.,Google Scholar
  86. Lynch-Brennan, Margaret (2009) The Irish Bridget: Irish Immigrant Women in Domestic Service in America, 1840–1930, Syracuse University PressSyracuse, NY.,Google Scholar
  87. Maccurtain, Margaret, O’Dowd, Mary (1991) Women in Early Modern Ireland, Edinburgh University PressEdinburgh.,Google Scholar
  88. Mackinnon, Catharine A. (1987) Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law, Harvard University PressCambridge.,Google Scholar
  89. MacRaild, Donald M. 2010. The Irish Diaspora in England, 17501939, 2nd ed., revised. Palgrave MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Malcomson, Patricia E. (1986) The English Laundress, University of Illinois PressUrbana.,Google Scholar
  91. Marshall, Sybil (1967) Fenland Chronicles: Recollections of William Henry and Kate Mary Edwards Collected and Edited by Their Daughter, Cambridge University PressCambridge.,Google Scholar
  92. McDannell, Colleen (1986) The Christian Home in Victorian America, 1840–1900, Indiana University PressBloomington, IN.,Google Scholar
  93. McDannell, Colleen (1989) American Catholic domesticity. In Makers of the Catholic Community in Six Volumes: The Bicentennial History of the Catholic Church in Americapp. 48–80, edited by CJ Kaufmann, MacmillanNew York.,Google Scholar
  94. McDonnell, Jeanne F. (2008) Juana Briones of Nineteenth-Century California, University of Arizona PressTuscon, AZ.,Google Scholar
  95. McIlroy Jack, and Mary Praetzellis (editors) 1997. Vanished Community19th-Century San Francisco Neighborhoods: From Fourth Street to Mission Creek, and Beyond. Archaeological Research Design and Treatment Plan for the SF-80 Bayshore Viaduct Seismic Retrofit Projects. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  96. Meyer, Michael D., and Susan B. Stewart (editors) 2001. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, I-880 Cypress Replacement Project, Block 3. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  97. Miller, Elizabeth (1875) In the Kitchen, Lee and ShepardBoston, MA.,Google Scholar
  98. Miller, Kerby A. (1985) Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to America, Oxford University PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  99. Miller, Kerby A., Schrier, Arnold, Bling, Bruce D., Doyle, David N. (2003) Irish Immigrants in the Land of Canaan: Letters and Memoirs from Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1675–1815, Oxford University PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  100. Miller, Rev. James R. 1880. The Ethics of Home Decoration. In Week-Day Religion, p. 269. Presbyterian Board of Education, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  101. Mokyr, Joel, O’Grada, Cormac 1984. New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850. Economic History 27:473–488. 2nd Series.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mulrooney, Maureen M. (2002) Black Powder, White Lace: the du Pont Irish and Cultural Identity in Nineteenth-Century America, University Press of New EnglandHanover, NH.,Google Scholar
  103. Murphy, Mary 2000. Bridget and Biddy: Images of the Irish Servant Girl in Puck Cartoons, 1880–1890. In New Perspectives on the Irish Diasporapp, edited by Charles Fanning, pp. 152–175. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, IL.Google Scholar
  104. Nelson, Sarah Milledge (ed.) (2006) Handbook of Gender in Archaeology, AltaMira PressLanham, MD.,Google Scholar
  105. Nicholls, Kenneth 1991. Irishwomen and Property in the Sixteenth Century. In Women in Early Modern Irelandpp, edited by Margaret MacCurtainand Mary O’Dowd, pp. 17–31. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  106. Nolan, Janet (1990) Ourselves Alone: Women’s Emigration from Ireland, 1885–1920, University Press of KentuckyLexington, KY.,Google Scholar
  107. O’Dowd, Anne 1994. Women in rural Ireland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: How Daughters, Wives, and Sisters of Small Farmers and Landless Labourers Fared. Rural History 5/2:171–183. Reprinted in The Irish Women’s History Reader, edited by Alan Hayes and Diane Urquhart, pp. 209–214. Routledge, London, 2001.Google Scholar
  108. O’Grada, Cormac (1995) Ireland: A New Economic History, 1780–1939, Oxford University PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  109. O’Grada, Cormac 2008. How the Poor (and Not-So-Poor) Saved: Savings Banks in Mid-Nineteenth Century Ireland and America. Working Paper WP08/22. Centre for Economic Research, University College Dublin.Google Scholar
  110. Olmsted, Nancy L., and Olmsted, Roger W. 1993. History of the Tar Flat and Rincon Hill Study Areas. In Tar Flat, Rincon Hill, and the Shore of Mission Bay: Archaeological Research Design and Treatment Plan for the SF-480 Terminal Separation Rebuild, Vol. 1, edited by Mary Praetzellis and Adrian Praetzellis, pp. 25–223. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland.Google Scholar
  111. Olmsted, Nancy L., and Olmsted, Roger W. 1997. Chapter 3: Overview—Historic Context. In Vanished Community19th-Century San Francisco Neighborhoods: From Fourth Street to Mission Creek and Beyond, edited by Jack Mc Ilroy and Mary Praetzellis, pp. 48–148. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for the California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland.Google Scholar
  112. Owen, Bruce 2009. The Power of Numbers: Material Status Index and Moving Forward. In 19th-Century San Francisco. South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoods, edited by Mary Praetzellis and Adrian Praetzellis, pp. 392–446. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California, Prepared for the California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  113. Pascoe, Peggy (1990) Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874–1939, Oxford University PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  114. Pascoe, Peggy 1991. Introduction: The Challenge of Writing Multicultural History. Frontiers 12:3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Paynter, Robert 1999. Class Analysis and Historical Archaeology. Historical Archaeology 33(1):184–195.Google Scholar
  116. Peden, Joseph R. 1977. Property Rights in Celtic Irish Law. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1(2):81–95.Google Scholar
  117. Potter, George W. (1960) To the Golden Door: The Story of the Irish in Ireland and America, Greenwood PressNew York.,Google Scholar
  118. Praetzellis, Adrian 2009. Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status. In South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoods, edited by Mary Praetzellis and Adrian Praetzellis, pp. 303–324. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California, Prepared for the California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  119. Praetzellis, Adrian, Praetzellis, Mary 2001. Mangling Symbols of Gentility in the Wild West: Case Studies in Interpretive Archaeology. American Anthropologist 103(3):645–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Praetzellis, Adrian, Praetzellis, Mary (2004) More than Just a Place to Start from: Historical Archaeologies of Oakland. In Putting the “There” There: Historical Archaeologies of West Oaklandpp. 305–328, edited by Mary Praetzellisand Adrian Praetzellis, Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State UniversityRohnert Park, CA, Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  121. Praetzellis, Adrian, Praetzellis, Mary (2010) Beyond Stories: A Quantitative Approach to Households, Neighborhoods, and Cities. In Interpreting the Early Modern World: Transatlantic Perspectivespp. 45–62, edited by Mary C Beaudryand James Symonds, SpringerNew York.,Google Scholar
  122. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 1994. West OaklandA Place to Start From. Research Design and Treatment Plan, Historical Archaeology. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  123. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 2001a. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, I-880 Cypress Replacement Project, Block 1. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  124. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 2001b. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, I-880 Cypress Replacement Project, Blocks 2, 5, and 37. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  125. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 2001c. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, I-880 Cypress Replacement Project, Blocks 19, 20, 21, and 37. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  126. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 2004. SF-80 West Shore Viaduct Seismic Retrofit Projects. Report on Construction, Monitoring, Geoarchaeology, and Technical and Interpretive Studies. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  127. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 2007a. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, The San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge, West Approach Archaeological Project, Block 4, Draft. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  128. Praetzellis, Mary (editor). 2007b. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, The San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge, West Approach Archaeological Project, Blocks 5, 7, and 9, Draft. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  129. Praetzellis, Mary (editor) 2007c. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, The San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge, West Approach Archaeological Project, Blocks 10 and 11, Draft. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  130. Praetzellis, Mary, and Adrian Praetzellis (editors) 1993. Tar Flat, Rincon Hill, and the Shore of Mission Bay: Archaeological Research Design and Treatment Plan for SF-480 Terminal Separation Rebuild. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  131. Praetzellis, Mary, and Adrian Praetzellis (editors) 2004. Putting the “There” There: Historical Archaeologies of West Oakland. Anthropological Studies Center. Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  132. Praetzellis, Mary, and Adrian Praetzellis (editors) 2009. South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoods. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  133. Praetzellis, Mary, and Susan B. Stewart (editors) 2001. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, I-880 Cypress Replacement Project, Blocks 4, 5, 6, and 9. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  134. Praetzellis, Mary, Adrian Praetzellis, Michael D. Meyer, and Jack McIlroy 1997. Research Context for Historical Archaeology. In Vanished Community19th-Century San Francisco Neighborhoods: From Fourth Street to Mission Creek, and Beyond. Archaeological Research Design and Treatment Plan for the SF-80 Bayshore Viaduct Seismic Retrofit Projects, edited by Jack Mc Ilroy and Mary Praetzellis, pp. 149–177. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  135. Prescott, Cynthia C. (2007) Gender and Generation on the Far Western Frontier, Arizona University PressTuscon.,Google Scholar
  136. Psota, Sunshine, and Mary C. Beaudry 2009. Chapter 5. Needleworkers and Sewing Implements, In 19th-century San Francisco. South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoods, edited by Mary Praetzellis and Adrian Praetzellis, pp. 189–231. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  137. Purser, Margaret 1991. Several Paradise Ladies are Visiting in Town: Gender Strategies in the Early Industrial West. Historical Archaeology 25(4):6–16.Google Scholar
  138. Rentoul, John 1988. Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Fridge? New Statesman 3, June, 14.Google Scholar
  139. Robinson, Harriet H. 1898. Loom and Spindle or Life among the Early Mill Girls. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., Boston, MA (available at http://www.oberlin.edu/history/GJK/H258S2000/LoomSpindle-ch1.html)
  140. Ross, Robert (1999) Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, 1750–1870, Cambridge University PressCambridge.,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rotman, Deborah (2009) Historical Archaeology of Gendered Lives, SpringerThe Netherlands.,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Scharff, Virginia 1992. Else Surely We Shall All Hang Separately: The Politics of Western Women’s History. The Pacific Historical Review 61(4):535–555.Google Scholar
  143. Scharff, Virginia (2003) Man and Nature! Sex Secrets of Environmental History. In Seeing Nature through Genderpp. 3–19, edited by Virginia Scharff, University Press of KansasLawrence, KS.,Google Scholar
  144. Scharff, Virginia, Brucken, Carolyn (2010) Home Lands: How Women Made the West, University of California PressBerkeley.,Google Scholar
  145. Scott, Elizabeth 1991. A Feminist Approach to Historical Archaeology: Eighteenth-Century Fur Trade Society at Michilimackinac. Historical Archaeology 24(4):42–53.Google Scholar
  146. Shammas, Carole 1994. Re-Assessing the Married Women’s Property Acts. Journal of Women’s History 6(1):9–30.Google Scholar
  147. Shammas, Carole (2002) A History of Household Government in America, University of Virginia PressCharlottesville.,Google Scholar
  148. Sharkey, Olive (2000) Ways of Old: Traditional Life in Ireland, O’Brien PressDublin.,Google Scholar
  149. Shumsky, Neil L. 1976. Frank Roney’s San Francisco-his diary: April 1875–March 1876. Labor History 17:251–264.Google Scholar
  150. Soltow, Lee (1975) Men and Wealth in the United States, 1850–1870, Yale University PressNew Haven, CT.,Google Scholar
  151. Sparks, Edith (2006) Capital Intentions: Female Proprietors in San Francisco, 1850–1920, University of North Carolina PressChapel Hill.,Google Scholar
  152. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. (1991) Toward an Historical Archaeology of Materialistic Domestic Reform. In The Archaeology of Inequalitypp. 231–286, edited by Randall McGuireand Robert Paynter, BlackwellOxford.,Google Scholar
  153. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. (1992) A Feminist Program for Non-Sexist Archaeology. In Quandaries, Quests: Visions of Archaeology’s Futurepp. 98–114, edited by LuAnn Wandsnider, Southern Illinois University PressCarbondale, IL.,Google Scholar
  154. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. (1996) Feminist Historical Archaeology and the Transformation of American Culture by Domestic Reform Movements, 1840–1925. In Historical Archaeology and the Study of American Culturepp. 397–446, edited by LuAnn De Cunzoand Bernard L Herman, Winterthur Museum and University of Tennessee PressKnoxville.,Google Scholar
  155. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. (2004) What Difference Does Feminist Theory Make in Researching Houses: A Commentary? In Chores and Household Choices: Theorizing the Domestic Sphere in Historical Archaeologypp. 235–253, edited by Kerri S Barileand Jamie C Brandon, Alabama University PressTuscaloosa, AL.,Google Scholar
  156. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. 2005. Power Dynamics Imprinted by Turn-of-the-Century Reform Women’s Institutions and Landscapes on Boston’s Public Landscape. In Imprints Footprints. Selected Papers, CELA Conference 2003, edited by Robert Hewitt, Daniel Nadenicek, and Frances Chamberlain, pp. 66–76. Clemson University.Google Scholar
  157. Spencer-Wood, Suzanne M. (2006) Feminist Theory and Gender Research in Historical Archaeology. In Handbook of Gender in Archaeologypp. 59–104, edited by Sarah Milledge Nelson, AltaMira PressLanham, MD.,Google Scholar
  158. Stanford, Mark (1986) The Nature of Historical Knowledge, Basil BlackwellOxford.,Google Scholar
  159. Stewart, Susan B., and Mary Praetzellis (editors) 2001. Block Technical Report: Historical Archaeology, I-880 Cypress Replacement Project, Blocks 22, 24, and 29. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  160. Street, John (1992) Fear of Fridges: Some Aspects of the Politics of Consumption. In Understanding the Enterprise Culturepp. 145–160, edited by Shaun A Heapand Angus Ross, Edinburgh University PressEdinburgh.,Google Scholar
  161. Thernstrom, Stephen (1964) Poverty and Progress: Social Mobility in a 19th Century City, Harvard University PressCambridge, MA.,Google Scholar
  162. Thurneysen, Rudolph, Power, Nancy, Dillon, Myles, Mulchrone, Kathleen, Binchy, D. A., Knoch, August, Ryan, John (1936) Studies in Early Irish Law, Royal Irish AcademyDublin.,Google Scholar
  163. Trübswetter, Parvati, and Stephan Klasen 2007. Gender Bias in Mortality in Ireland Around 1870–1930. Unpublished Paper. http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/webfac/cromer/e211_f07/klasen.pdf. Accessed 14 April 2009.
  164. Vapnak, Lara (2009) Breadwinners: Working Women and Economic Independence, 1865–1920, University of Illinois PressCarbondale, IL.,Google Scholar
  165. Voss, Barbara L. 2005. From casta to Californio: Social Identity and the Archaeology of Culture Contact. American Anthropologist 107(3):461–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wall, Diana di Zerga (1994) The Archaeology of Gender. Separating the Spheres in Urban America, Plenum PressNew York, NY.,Google Scholar
  167. Wall, Diana di Zerga 2001. Afterword: Becoming New York: The Five Points Neighborhood. Historical Archaeology 35(3):133–135.Google Scholar
  168. Welter, Barbara 1966. The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820–1860. American Quarterly 18(2):151–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wheeler, Kathleen L. 1995a. Using historical Archaeology to Rewrite the Myth of the “Poor Widow”: An Example from Nineteenth-Century Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The New Hampshire Archeologist 35(1):1–11.Google Scholar
  170. Wheeler, Kathleen L. 1995b. Mary Rider as “Active” Widow. Paper presented at The Society for Historical Archaeology Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  171. Wiggin, Kate Douglas (1889) The Story of Patsy, Riverside Press, Houghton Mifflin CompanyBoston, MA.,Google Scholar
  172. Wilkie, Laurie (2003) The Archaeology of Mothering: an African-American Midwife’s Tale, RoutledgeLondon.,Google Scholar
  173. Woolf, Virginia 1929. A Room of One’s Own. Mariner Books, Annotated edition, 2005. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishers, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  174. Wood, R., and A. Kennedy (Edited and Abridged by Sam Bass Warner) 1969. The Zone of Emergence: Observations of the Lower Middle and Upper Working Class Communities of Boston, 19051914, 2nd ed. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  175. Wood, Margaret C. (2004) Working-Class Households as Sites of Social Change. In Household Chores and Household Choices: Theorizing the Domestic Sphere in Historical Archaeologypp. 210–234, edited by Kerri S Barileand Jamie C Brandon, University of Alabama PressTuscaloosa, Al.,Google Scholar
  176. Yamin, Rebecca 2001a. Alternative Narratives: Respectability at New York’s Five Points. In The Archaeology of Urban Landscapes: Explorations in Slumlandpp, edited by Alan Mayne and Timothy Murray. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 154–170.Google Scholar
  177. Yamin, Rebecca 2001b. Becoming New York: The Five Points Neighborhood, Special Edition. Historical Archaeology 35(3).Google Scholar
  178. Yentsch, Anne E. 1988. Legends, Houses, Families and Myths: Relationships Between Material Culture and American Ideology. In Documentary Archaeology in the New World, edited by Mary C. Beaudry, pp. 5–19. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  179. Yentsch, Anne E. 1991. Engendering Visible and Invisible Ceramic Artifacts especially Dairy Vessels. Historical Archaeology 25(4):132–155.Google Scholar
  180. Yentsch, Anne E. 2009. Tracing Immigrant Women and Their Household Possessions in 19th-Century San Francisco. In 19th-century San Francisco. South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoods, edited by Mary Praetzellis and Adrian Praetzellis, pp. 141–188. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  181. Ziesing, Grace (editor) 2000. San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, West Approach Replacement: Archaeological Research Design and Treatment Plan, Vol. 2. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. Prepared for California Department of Transportation, District 4, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© World Archaeological Congress 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tybee IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations