Advertisement

Prädiktoren der Delinquenz bei adoleszenten Muslimen

Religiosität, religiöser Fundamentalismus und wahrgenommene religiöse Diskriminierung
  • Johannes BellerEmail author
  • Christoph Kröger
  • Daniela Hosser
Originalarbeit

Zusammenfassung

Religiosität gilt in der Delinquenzforschung als ein protektiver Faktor. Jedoch fanden kürzlich erschienene Studien widersprüchliche Ergebnisse bezüglich des Einflusses von Religiosität auf deutsche Muslime, sodass unklar bleibt, ob muslimische Religiosität mit verminderter oder erhöhter Delinquenz assoziiert ist. Es stellt sich die Frage, inwiefern individuelle religiöse Praktiken, soziale religiöse Praktiken, religiöser Fundamentalismus und wahrgenommene religiöse Diskriminierung delinquentes Verhalten von Muslimen prädizieren. Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage wurden Daten von 761 muslimischen Schülern, bereitgestellt vom Institut für Interdisziplinäre Konflikt- und Gewaltforschung, per Korrelations- und Regressionsanalysen ausgewertet. Es zeigt sich, dass religiöser Fundamentalismus und wahrgenommene religiöse Diskriminierung höhere Delinquenzraten prädizieren, dass soziale religiöse Praktiken nicht signifikant mit Delinquenz zusammenhängen, und dass individuelle religiöse Praktiken niedrigere Delinquenzraten vorhersagen. Somit weisen verschiedene Aspekte muslimischer Religiosität differenzielle Zusammenhänge zu delinquentem Verhalten auf. Eine mögliche Erklärung für die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse vorangegangener Studien ist, dass Religiosität, je nachdem welcher der oben genannten Aspekt überwiegt, protektive oder kriminogene Effekte ausüben kann. Die Berücksichtigung dieser differenziellen Rolle der Religiosität kann zur Verbesserung der Kriminalprävention und -prognose, insbesondere bei Muslimen, beitragen.

Schlüsselwörter

Kriminalität Verhalten von Jugendlichen Protektive Faktoren Risikofaktoren Islam 

Predictors of delinquency in adolescent Muslims

Religiosity, religious fundamentalism and perceived religious discrimination

Abstract

Religiosity is considered to be a protective factor in delinquency research; however, recently published studies found contradictory results with respect to the influence of religiosity on German Muslims. It therefore remained unclear whether Muslim religiosity is associated with diminished or increased delinquency. The question arises whether individual religious practices, social religious practices, religious fundamentalism and perceived religious discrimination predict deliquent behavior of Muslims. In an attempt to answer this question data from 761 Muslim schoolchildren provided by the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and Violence were evaluated by correlation and regression analyses. It was found that religious fundamentalism and perceived religious discrimination predict higher delinquency rates, that social religious practices are not significantly associated with delinquency and that individual religious practices predict lower delinquency rates. Therefore, different aspects of Muslim religiosity show differential associations with delinquent behavior. A possible explanation for the contradictory results of previous studies is that religiosity can have protective or criminogenic effects depending on which of the abovenamed aspects is predominant. Consideration of these differential roles of religiosity can contribute to an improvement of criminal prevention and prognosis, particularly for Muslims.

Keywords

Crime Adolescent behavior Protective factors Risk factors Islam 

Notes

Danksagung

Unser Dank gilt dem Institut für interdisziplinäre Konflikt- und Gewaltforschung für die Möglichkeit, ihre Daten für die vorliegende Untersuchung nutzen zu können (Mansel und Spaiser 2013; Derr et al. 2014).

Interessenkonflikt

J. Beller, C. Kröger und D. Hosser geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Literatur

  1. Adamczyk A, Freilich JD, Kim C (2017) Religion and crime: a systematic review and assessment of next steps. Sociol Relig 78:192–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allport GW, Ross JM (1967) Personal religious orientation and prejudice. J Pers Soc Psychol 5:432–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altemeyer B, Hunsberger B (1992) Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. Int J Psychol Relig 2:113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altemeyer B, Hunsberger B (2004) A revised religious fundamentalism scale: The short and sweet of it. Int J Psychol Relig 14:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atran S, Norenzayan A (2004) Religion’s evolutionary landscape: counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion. Behav Brain Sci 27:713–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baier D (2010) Kinder und Jugendliche in Deutschland: Gewalterfahrungen, Integration, Medienkonsum; zweiter Bericht zum gemeinsamen Forschungsprojekt des Bundesministeriums des Innern und des KFN. Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachen. http://kfn.de/wp-content/uploads/Forschungsberichte/FB_109.pdf. Zugegriffen: 5. Aug. 2017Google Scholar
  7. Baier D (2014) The influence of religiosity on violent behavior of adolescents: a comparison of Christian and muslim religiosity. J Interpers Violence 29:102–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baier CJ, Wright BR (2001) “if you love me, keep my commandments”: a meta-analysis of the effect of religion on crime. J Res Crime Delinq 38:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beller J (2014) Differenzielle Effekte klassischer Prädiktoren von Jugendgewalt. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol 8:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beller J (2017) Religion and militarism: the effects of religiosity, religious fundamentalism, religious conspiracy belief, and demographics on support for military action. Peace Confl 23:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beller J, Baier D (2013) Differential effects: are the effects studied by psychologists really linear and homogeneous? Eur J Psychol 9:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beller J, Kröger C (2017) Is religious fundamentalism a dimensional or a categorical phenomenon? A taxometric analysis in two samples of youth from Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Psycholog Relig Spiritual 9:158–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beller J, Kröger C (2017) Religiosity, religious fundamentalism, and perceived threat as predictors of Muslim support for extremist violence. Psycholog Relig Spiritual. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1037/rel0000138 Google Scholar
  14. Beller J, Kröger C (2018) Differential effects from aspects of religion on female genital mutilation/cutting. Psycholog Relig Spiritual. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1037/rel0000177 Google Scholar
  15. Bertelsmann Stiftung (2007) Religionsmonitor 2008. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, GüterslohGoogle Scholar
  16. Bock EM, Hosser D (2014) Empathy as a predictor of recidivism among young adult offenders. Psychol Crime Law 20:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brettfeld K (2009) Schuf Gott am 8. Tag Gewalt? Religion, Religiosität und deviante Einstellungen und Verhaltensmuster Jugendlicher. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Brettfeld K, Wetzels P (2007) Muslime in Deutschland. Integration, Integrationsbarrieren, Religion und Einstellungen zu Demokratie, Rechtsstaat und politisch-religiös motivierter Gewalt. Bundesministerium des Inneren, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  19. Brettfeld K, Wetzels P (2011) Religionszugehörigkeit, Religiosität und delinquentes Verhalten Jugendlicher. Monatsschr Kriminol und Strafrechtsreform 6:409–430Google Scholar
  20. De Hoon S, Van Tubergen F (2014) The religiosity of children of immigrants and natives in England, Germany, and the Netherlands: The role of parents and peers in class. Eur Sociol Rev 30:194–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Derr M, Hohlweg J, Salentin K (2014) Datenhandbuch soziale Beziehungen und Konfliktpotentiale im Kontext verweigerter Anerkennung bei Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund. https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/2726336. Zugegriffen: 5. Aug. 2017Google Scholar
  22. Duwe G, King M (2013) Can faith-based correctional programs work? An outcome evaluation of the inner change freedom initiative in Minnesota. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 57:813–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ganzeboom HBG, De Graaf PM, Treiman DJ (1992) A standard international socio-economic index of occupational status. Soc Sci Res 21:1–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gebauer JE, Sedikides C, Neberich W (2012) Religiosity, social self-esteem, and psychological adjustment: on the cross-cultural specificity of the psychological benefits of religiosity. Psychol Sci 23:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ginges J, Hansen I, Norenzayan A (2009) Religion and support for suicide attacks. Psychol Sci 20:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grieger L, Hosser D, Schmidt AF (2012) Predictive validity of self-reported self-control for different forms of recidivism. J Crim Psychol 2:80–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Güngör D, Fleischmann F, Phalet K (2011) Religious identification, beliefs, and practices among Turkish Belgian and Moroccan Belgian Muslims: Intergenerational continuity and acculturative change. J Cross-cult Psychol 42:1356–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guveli A (2015) Are movers more religious than stayers? Religiosity of European majority, Turks in Europe and Turkey. Rev Religious Res 57:43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris JI, Erbes CR, Engdahl BE, Tedeschi RG, Olson RH, Winskowski AMM, McMahill J (2010) Coping functions of prayer and posttraumatic growth. Int J Psychol Religion 20:26–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hirschi T, Stark R (1969) Hellfire and delinquency. Soc Probl 17:202–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hood RW Jr, Hill PC, Williamson WP (2005) The psychology of religious fundamentalism. Guilford, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  32. Hood RW Jr, Hill PC, Spilka B (2009) The psychology of religion: an empirical approach. Guilford, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  33. Huber S, Huber OW (2012) The centrality of religiosity scale (CRS). Religions 3:710–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Inglehart R (2000) World values surveys and European values surveys, 1981–1984, 1990–1993, and 1995–1997. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson BR (2011) More God, less crime: Why faith matters and how it could matter more. Templeton Foundation Press, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson BR (2014) Religious participation and criminal behavior. In: Humphrey JA, Cordella P (Hrsg) Effective interventions in the lives of criminal offenders. Springer, New York, S 3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnson BR, Larson DB, Pitts TC (1997) Religious programs, institutional adjustment, and recidivism among former inmates in prison fellowship programs. Justice Q 14:145–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson BR, De Li S, Larson DB, McCullough M (2000) A systematic review of the religiosity and delinquency literature: a research note. J Contemp Crim Justice 16:32–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones EE, Harris VA (1967) The attribution of attitudes. J Exp Soc Psychol 3:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khoury-Kassabri M, Khoury N, Ali R (2015) Arab youth involvement in delinquency and political violence and parental control: the mediating role of religiosity. Am J Orthopsychiatry 85:576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. King JE, Crowther MR (2004) The measurement of religiosity and spirituality: examples and issues from psychology. J Organ Change Manag 17:83–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Klanjšek R, Vazsonyi AT, Trejos-Castillo E (2012) Religious orientation, low self-control, and deviance: Muslims, Catholics, Eastern Orthodox-, and “Bible Belt” Christians. J Adolesc 35:671–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Koopmans R (2015) Religious fundamentalism and hostility against out-groups: a comparison of muslims and christians in western europe. J Ethn Migr Stud 41:33–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mansel J, Spaiser V (2013) Ausgrenzungsdynamiken: In welchen Lebenslagen Jugendliche Fremdgruppen abwerten. Beltz Juventa, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  45. Martin MJ, McCarthy B, Conger RD, Gibbons FX, Simons RL, Cutrona CE, Brody GH (2011) The enduring significance of racism: discrimination and delinquency among black American youth. J Res Adolesc 21:662–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCleary DF, Quillivan CC, Foster LN, Williams RL (2011) Meta-analysis of correlational relationships between perspectives of truth in religion and major psychological constructs. Psycholog Relig Spiritual 3:163–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCullough ME, Carter E (2013) Religion, self-control, and selfregulation: how and why are they related? In: Exline JJ (Hrsg) APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality. American Psychological Association, Washington, S 123–138Google Scholar
  48. Mulcahy E, Merrington S, Bell PJ (2013) The radicalisation of prison inmates: a review of the literature on recruitment, religion and prisoner vulnerability. J Hum Secur 9:4–14Google Scholar
  49. O’Connor TP, Perreyclear M (2002) Prison religion in action and its influence on offender rehabilitation. J Offender Rehabil 35:11–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pollack D, Müller O (2013) Religionsmonitor. Verstehen was verbindet: Religiosität und Zusammenhalt in Deutschland. Bertelsmann Stiftung, GüterslohGoogle Scholar
  51. Reisig MD, Wolfe SE, Pratt TC (2012) Low self-control and the religiosity-crime relationship. Crim Justice Behav 39:1172–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sasaki JY, Kim HS (2011) At the intersection of culture and religion: a cultural analysis of religion’s implications for secondary control and social affiliation. J Pers Soc Psychol 101:401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Skjak KK (2010) The international social survey programme: annual cross-national social surveys since 1985. In: Harkness JA, Braun M, Edwards B, Johnson TP, Lyberg LE, Mohler PP, Pennell B‑E, Smith TW (Hrsg) Survey methods in multinational, multiregional, and multicultural contexts. Wiley, New York, S 497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spiegel Online (2010) Kriminologische Studie – Jung, muslimisch, brutal. http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/justiz/kriminologische-studie-jung-muslimisch-brutal-a-698948.html. Zugegriffen: 5. Aug. 2017Google Scholar
  55. Stekhoven DJ, Bühlmann P (2012) MissForest—non-parametric missing value imputation for mixed-type data. Bioinformatics 28:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sykes GM, Matza D (1958) Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. Am Sociol Rev 22:664–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ysseldyk R, Talebi M, Matheson K, Bloemraad I, Anisman H (2014) Religious and ethnic discrimination: differential implications for social support engagement, civic involvement, and political consciousness. J Soc Polit Psychol 2:347–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zwingmann C, Klein C, Jeserich F (2017) Religiosität: Die dunkle Seite. Waxmann, MünsterGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Beller
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christoph Kröger
    • 2
  • Daniela Hosser
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Psychologie, Abteilung für Entwicklungs‑, Persönlichkeits- und Forensische PsychologieTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Psychologie, Abteilung für Klinische Psychologie und PsychotherapieUniversität HildesheimHildesheimDeutschland

Personalised recommendations