General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp 111–117 | Cite as

Is the frozen elephant trunk frozen?

  • Roberto Di Bartolomeo
  • Giacomo Murana
  • Luca Di Marco
  • Jacopo Alfonsi
  • Gregorio Gliozzi
  • Ciro Amodio
  • Alessandro Leone
  • Davide PaciniEmail author
SPECIAL EDITION Controversies in Surgery for Thoracic Aorta


The elephant trunks, either conventional or frozen represent the major technical improvements in the treatment of complex thoracic aortic disease. In the last decades, these useful techniques progressively evolved along with the introduction of new devices to facilitate the procedure and ameliorate post-operative results. The latest multi-branched hybrid FET prostheses give us the opportunity to greatly facilitate graft implantation and reduce operative times. The following review will provide an overview of the FET technique throughout the current available devices, possible surgical indications and principal surgical steps.


Aortic arch Frozen Elephant trunk Aortic Cerebral perfusion. 




Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Di Bartolomeo
    • 1
  • Giacomo Murana
    • 1
  • Luca Di Marco
    • 1
  • Jacopo Alfonsi
    • 1
  • Gregorio Gliozzi
    • 1
  • Ciro Amodio
    • 1
  • Alessandro Leone
    • 1
  • Davide Pacini
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater studiorumUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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