To detect metastatic lung tumors of less than 1 mm in size by focusing on the clearance of contrast material using synchrotron radiation (SR) angiography characterized by high spatial resolution and high-sensitivity receiver.
C6 cells, derived from rat glioma cells, were injected to the rat tail vein. Two weeks after injection, the rats underwent SR angiography using a high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) receiver of extra-high sensitivity with high contrast resolution. The 256-grayscale value was employed in the analysis of images.
19 nodules were identified in images. The tumors were confirmed histopathologically. The average tumor size was 621 ± 193 µm. The clearance curve of the densities was expressed as a logarithm function. Tumors showed delayed clearance of contrast material, taking up to 28 s, compared with arteries, which cleared rapidly at 8 s. In 256 grayscale, the distance was 50. This gap in density clearance made it possible to identify tumors.
SR angiography with a HARP receiver provides high sensitivity and spatial resolution and makes it possible to diagnose metastatic lung tumors of less than 1 mm in size by focusing on differences in the clearance times of contrast material.
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The authors thank Mr. Kenkichi Tanioka of Tokyo Denki University, Mr. Misao Kubota, Mr. Kazunori Miyakawa of NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratory and Mr. Akira Kobayashi of Hamamatsu Photonics Corporation for their technical assistance. The authors are grateful to Mr. Avi Landau for his language consultation. This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant C-20591471 and Grant C-23592053).
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.
Electronic supplementary material
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Supplementary material 1 (MPG 6680 kb) Online Resource1. The original animation of SR angiography (the case of Fig. 2). Several nodules were shown with delayed clearance of density from a few seconds after rapid infusion, and some of them remained visible for a few minutes. Their time course of density were analyzed (Fig. 1) using captured still images (Fig. 2)
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Ito, H., Matsushita, S., Hyodo, K. et al. Focusing on delayed clearance for identifying small-sized metastatic lung tumors using synchrotron radiation angiography with a highly sensitive receiver. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 62, 553–559 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11748-014-0430-x
- Metastatic lung tumor
- Synchrotron radiation
- Abnormal permeability
- Delayed enhancement