General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

, Volume 61, Issue 6, pp 320–329 | Cite as

Intraoperative cardiac assessment with transesophageal echocardiography for decision-making in cardiac anesthesia

  • Koichi Akiyama
  • Shoji Arisawa
  • Masahiro Ide
  • Masaaki Iwaya
  • Yoshiyuki Naito
Current Topics Review Article


Transesophageal echocardiography is an invaluable hemodynamic monitoring modality. Extended and anatomically based evaluation of cardiac function with transesophageal echocardiography is essential to prompt and accurate decision-making in anesthetic management during cardiac surgery. Fractional shortening and fractional area changes are indices widely used to assess the global systolic performance of the left ventricle. Monitoring regional function using semi-quantitative scoring has been demonstrated to be a more sensitive indicator of myocardial ischemia. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function should be performed in a systematic way, measuring transmitral flow, pulmonary venous flow, transmitral color M-mode flow propagation velocity, and mitral annulus tissue Doppler imaging. The unique anatomical features of the right ventricle make echocardiographic evaluation complicated and therefore less frequently employed. Right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, maximal systolic tricuspid annular velocity with tissue Doppler imaging, and myocardial performance index are indices successfully incorporated into intraoperative right ventricular assessment. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve may develop after cardiac procedures. Transesophageal echocardiography plays a central role in prevention as well as diagnosis of systolic anterior motion. Transesophageal echocardiography is extremely useful not only for detecting and locating intracardiac air, but also for guiding and evaluating the procedures to remove air. Air is likely to persist in the right and left superior pulmonary vein, left ventricular apex, left atrium, right coronary sinus of Valsalva, and ascending aorta. Accurate evaluation of cardiac function depends on performing TEE examination properly and obtaining optimal images.


Transesophageal echocardiography Systolic function Diastolic function Systolic anterior motion Intracardiac air 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Akiyama
    • 1
  • Shoji Arisawa
    • 2
  • Masahiro Ide
    • 2
  • Masaaki Iwaya
    • 2
  • Yoshiyuki Naito
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaAkashi Medical CenterAkashiJapan
  2. 2.Anesthesia Associates of KobeKobeJapan

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