Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 290–312 | Cite as

Ensuring international competitiveness: a configurative approach to foreign marketing subsidiaries

  • Christian HomburgEmail author
  • Andreas Fürst
  • Christina Kuehnl


Increasingly, multinational companies (MNCs) operate their global marketing activities through foreign marketing subsidiaries. However, this practice presents MNCs with the challenge of efficiently and effectively managing a portfolio of subsidiaries with numerous diverging characteristics. To reduce the complexity of managing such a portfolio and to increase MNCs’ and subsidiaries’ performance, we provide MNCs with a marketing subsidiary taxonomy that enables them to understand and manage different subsidiary types. Analysis of a cross-sectional, multi-country, multiple-informant dataset generated five marketing subsidiary clusters, which are distinct in the structural characteristics of size, age, and value-added scope and the strategic characteristics of strategic influence, strategic competence, and strategic importance. Subsidiary performance outcomes, subsidiary environmental conditions including important marketing aspects (e.g., customer characteristics), and headquarters’ coordination and communication mechanisms enrich our cluster description and yield a holistic picture of our marketing subsidiary taxonomy. The empirical results provide significant theoretical and managerial implications.


Foreign marketing subsidiary Configurative approach Taxonomy 



The authors thank Petra Schenkel and Frank Becker for their assistance in the data collection and analysis phase of this study. All authors contributed equally to this manuscript.


  1. Almeida, P., & Phene, A. (2004). Subsidiaries and knowledge creation: the influence of the MNC and host country on innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 25(8/9), 847–864.Google Scholar
  2. Ambos, T. C., & Birkinshaw, J. (2010). Headquarters’ attention and its effect on subsidiary performance. Management International Review, 50(04), 449–469.Google Scholar
  3. Andersson, U., Forsgren, M., & Holm, U. (2007). Balancing subsidiary influence in the federative MNC: a business network view. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(05), 802–818.Google Scholar
  4. Arabie, P., & Hubert, L. (1994). Cluster analysis in marketing research. In R. P. Bagozzi (Ed.), Advanced methods of marketing research (pp. 160–179). Cambridge: Blackwell Business.Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(08), 396–402.Google Scholar
  6. Asmussen, C. G., Pedersen, T., & Dhanaraj, C. (2009). Host-country environment and subsidiary competence: extending the diamond network model. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(01), 42–57.Google Scholar
  7. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(01), 74–94.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, K. D. (1994). Typologies and taxonomies: an introduction to classification techniques. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1986). Tap your subsidiaries for global reach. Harvard Business Review, 64(06), 87–94.Google Scholar
  10. Bello, D. C., & Gilliland, D. I. (1997). The effect of output controls, process controls, and flexibility on export channel performance. Journal of Marketing, 61(01), 22–38.Google Scholar
  11. Benito, G. R. G., Narula, B., & Grogaard, B. (2003). Environmental influences on MNE subsidiary roles: economic integration and the Nordic countries. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(05), 443–456.Google Scholar
  12. Birkinshaw, J. (1997). Entrepreneurship in multinational companies: the characteristics of subsidiary initiatives. Strategic Management Journal, 38(03), 207–229.Google Scholar
  13. Birkinshaw, J., & Hood, N. (1998). Multinational subsidiary evolution: capability and charter change in foreign-owned subsidiary companies. Academy of Management Review, 23(04), 773–795.Google Scholar
  14. Birkinshaw, J., & Morrison, A. J. (1995). Configurations of strategy and structure in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(04), 729–753.Google Scholar
  15. Birkinshaw, J., Toulan, O., & Arnold, D. (2001). Global account management in multinational corporations: theory and Evidence. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(02), 231–248.Google Scholar
  16. Blocker, C. P., Flint, D. J., Myers, M. B., & Slater, S. F. (2011). Proactive customer orientation and its role for creating customer value in global markets. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(02), 216–233.Google Scholar
  17. Bunn, M. D. (1993). Taxonomy of buying decision approaches. Journal of Marketing, 57(01), 38–56.Google Scholar
  18. Bush, V. D., Rose, G. M., Gilbert, F., & Ingram, T. N. (2001). Managing culturally diverse buyer-seller relatioships: the role of intercultural disposition and adaptive selling in developing intercultural communication competence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(04), 391–404.Google Scholar
  19. Cadogan, J. W., Paul, N. J., Salminen, R. T., Puumalainen, K., & Sundqvist, S. (2001). Key antecedents to “export” market-oriented behaviors: a cross-national empirical examination. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 18(03), 261–282.Google Scholar
  20. Cadogan, J. W., Sundqvist, S., Salminen, R. T., & Puumalainen, K. (2005). Export Marketing, Interfunctional Interactions, and Performance Consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(04), 520–535.Google Scholar
  21. Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and structure. Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  22. Chang, S. J. (1995). International expansion strategy of Japanese firms: capability building through sequential entry. Academy of Management Journal, 38(02), 383–407.Google Scholar
  23. Child, J. (1973). Strategies of control and organizational behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 18(01), 1–17.Google Scholar
  24. Cray, D. (1984). Control and coordination in multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 15(02), 85–98.Google Scholar
  25. De Backer, K., & Sleuwaegen, L. (2005). A closer look at the productivity advantage of foreign affiliates. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 12(01), 17–34.Google Scholar
  26. Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. (2001). Survival and profitability: the roles of experience and intangible assets in foreign subsidiary performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(05), 1028–1038.Google Scholar
  27. Deshpandé, R., Farley, J. U., & Webster, F. E., Jr. (1993). Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: a quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing, 57(01), 23–37.Google Scholar
  28. Duda, R. O., & Hart, P. E. (1973). Pattern classification and scene analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Dunne, P., & Hughes, A. (1994). Age, size, growth and survival: UK companies in the 1980s. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 42(02), 115–140.Google Scholar
  30. Egelhoff, W. G. (1988). Strategy and structure in multinational corporations: a revision of the Stepford and Wells model. Strategic Management Journal, 9(01), 1–14.Google Scholar
  31. Ekeledo, I., & Sivakumar, K. (1998). Foreign market entry mode choice of service firms: a contingency perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26(04), 274–292.Google Scholar
  32. Enright, M. J., & Subramanian, V. (2007). An organizing framework for MNC subsidiary typologies. Management International Review, 47(06), 895–924.Google Scholar
  33. Faes, W., Matthyssens, P., & Vandenbempt, K. (2000). The Pursuit of Global Purchasing Synergy. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(06), 539–553.Google Scholar
  34. Fang, Y., Wade, M., Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. (2007). International diversification, subsidiary performance, and the mobility of knowledge resources. Strategic Management Journal, 28(10), 1053–1064.Google Scholar
  35. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(02), 39–50.Google Scholar
  36. Frost, T. S., Birkinshaw, J. M., & Ensign, P. C. (2002). Centers of excellence in multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 23(11), 997–1018.Google Scholar
  37. Gatignon, H., & Xuereb, J.-M. (1997). Strategic Orientation of the Firm and New Product Performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(01), 77–90.Google Scholar
  38. Gencturk, E. F., & Aulakh, P. S. (1995). The use of process and output controls in foreign markets. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(04), 755–786.Google Scholar
  39. Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimensionality and Its Assessment. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(02), 186–92.Google Scholar
  40. Ghoshal, S., & Nohria, N. (1989). Internal differentiation within multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 10(04), 323–337.Google Scholar
  41. Govindarajan, V. (1986). Decentralization, strategy, and the effectiveness of strategic business units in multibusiness organizations. Academy of Management Review, 11(04), 844–856.Google Scholar
  42. Grewal, R., Chandrashekaran, M., & Dwyer, F. R. (2008). Navigating local environments with global strategies: a contingency model of multinational subsidiary performance. Marketing Science, 27(05), 886–902.Google Scholar
  43. Grewal, D., Iyer, G. R., Kamakura, W. A., Mehrotra, A., & Sharma, A. (2009). Evaluation of subsidiary marketing performance: combining process and outcome performance metrics. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(02), 117–129.Google Scholar
  44. Grinyer, P. H., & Yasai-Ardekani, M. (1981). Strategy, structure, size and bureaucracy. Academy of Management Journal, 24(03), 471–486.Google Scholar
  45. Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (1991). Knowledge flows and the structure of control within multinational corporations. Academy of Management Review, 16(04), 768–792.Google Scholar
  46. Hambrick, D. C., MacMillan, I. C., & Day, D. L. (1982). Strategic attributes and performance in the BCG matrix—A PIMS-based analysis of industrial product businesses. Academy of Management Journal, 25(03), 510–531.Google Scholar
  47. Harvey, M. G., Novicevic, M. M., Hench, T., & Myers, M. (2003). Global account management: a supply-side managerial view. Industrial Marketing Management, 32(07), 563–571.Google Scholar
  48. Harzing, A.-W. (1997). Response rates in international mail surveys: results of a 22-country study. International Business Review, 6(06), 641–665.Google Scholar
  49. Harzing, A.-W. (1999). Managing the multinational. Northampton: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  50. Harzing, A.-W., & Sorge, A. (2003). The relative impact of country of origin and universal contingencies on internationalization strategies and corporate control in multinational enterprises: worldwide and European perspectives. Organization Studies, 24(02), 187–214.Google Scholar
  51. Helsen, K., & Green, P. E. (1991). A computational study of replicated clustering with an application to market segmentation. Decision Sciences, 22(05), 1124–1141.Google Scholar
  52. Hennart, J.-F. (1991). Control in multinational firms: the role of price and hierarchy. Management International Review, 31(04), 71–96.Google Scholar
  53. Hewett, K., & Bearden, W. O. (2001). Dependence, trust, and relational behavior on the part of foreign subsidiary marketing operations: implications for managing global marketing operations. Journal of Marketing, 65(04), 51–66.Google Scholar
  54. Hewett, K., Roth, M., & Roth, K. (2003). Conditions influencing headquarters and foreign subsidiary roles in marketing activities and their effects on performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(06), 567–585.Google Scholar
  55. Hitt, M. A., & Ireland, R. D. (1985). Corporate distinctive competence: strategy, industry, and performance. Strategic Management Journal, 6(03), 273–293.Google Scholar
  56. Homburg, C., & Pflesser, C. (2000). A multiple-layer model of market-oriented organizational culture: measurement issues and performance outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(04), 449–462.Google Scholar
  57. Homburg, C., Workman, J. P., & Jensen, O. (2002). A configurational perspective on key account management. Journal of Marketing, 66(02), 38–60.Google Scholar
  58. Homburg, C., Jensen, O., & Krohmer, H. (2008). Configurations of marketing and sales: a taxonomy. Journal of Marketing, 72(02), 133–154.Google Scholar
  59. Hulbert, J. M., Brandt, W. K., & Richers, R. (1980). Marketing planning in the multinational subsidiary: practices and problems. Journal of Marketing, 44(03), 7–15.Google Scholar
  60. Hult, G. T. M., & Ketchen, D. J., Jr. (2001). Does Market Orientation Matter? A Test of Relationship between positional Advantage and Performance. Strategic Management Journal, 22(09), 899–906.Google Scholar
  61. Hult, G. T. M., Ketchen, D. J., & Slater, S. F. (2005). Market orientation and performance: an integration of disparate approaches. Strategic Management Journal, 22(12), 1173–1181.Google Scholar
  62. Hult, G. T. M., Ketchen, D. J., Jr., Griffith, D. A., Chabowski, B. R., Hamman, M. K., Dykes, B. J., et al. (2008). An assessment of the measurement of performance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(06), 1064–1080.Google Scholar
  63. Jaeger, A. M. (1983). The transfer of organizational culture overseas: an approach to control in the multinational corporation. Journal of International Business Studies, 14(02), 91–114.Google Scholar
  64. Jain, S. C. (1989). Standardization of international marketing strategy: some research hypotheses. Journal of Marketing, 53(01), 70–79.Google Scholar
  65. Jarillo, J., & Martinez, J. I. (1990). Different roles for subsidiaries: the case of multinational corporations in Spain. Strategic Management Journal, 11(07), 501–512.Google Scholar
  66. Johnson, J., & Tellis, G. J. (2008). Drivers of Success for Market Entry into China and India. Journal of Marketing, 72(03), 1–13.Google Scholar
  67. Johnston, S., & Menguc, B. (2007). Subsidiary size and the level of autonomy in multinational corporations: a quadratic model investigation of Australian subsidiaries. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(05), 787–801.Google Scholar
  68. Katsikeas, C. S., Samiee, S., & Theodosiou, M. (2006). Strategy fit and performance consequences of international marketing standardization. Strategic Management Journal, 27(09), 867–890.Google Scholar
  69. Ketchen, D. J., & Shook, C. L. (1996). The application of cluster analysis in strategic management research: an analysis and critique. Strategic Management Journal, 17(06), 441–458.Google Scholar
  70. Ketchen, D. J., Thomas, J. B., & Snow, C. C. (1993). Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches. Academy of Management Journal, 36(06), 1278–1313.Google Scholar
  71. Kim, K., Park, J.-H., & Prescott, J. E. (2003). The global integration of business functions: a study of multinational businesses in integrated global industries. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(04), 327–344.Google Scholar
  72. Kirca, A. H., Jayachandran, S., & Bearden, W. O. (2005). Market orientation: a meta-analytical review and assessment of its antecedents and impact on performance. Journal of Marketing, 69(02), 24–41.Google Scholar
  73. Kirca, A. H., Bearden, W. O., & Roth, K. (2010). Implementation of market orientation in the subsidiaries of global companies: the role of institutional factors. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. doi: 10.1007/s11747-010-0234-1.
  74. Klein, J. G., Ettenson, R., & Krishnan, B. C. (2006). Extending the construct of consumer ethnocentrism: when foreign products are preferred. International Marketing Review, 23(03), 304–321.Google Scholar
  75. Kwak, H., Jaju, A., & Larsen, T. (2006). Consumer ethnocentrism offline and online: the mediating role of marketing efforts and personality traits in the United States, South Korea, and India. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(03), 367–385.Google Scholar
  76. Lim, L. K. S., Acito, F., & Rusetsko, A. (2006). Development of archetypes of international marketing strategy. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(04), 499–524.Google Scholar
  77. Majumdar, S. K. (1997). The impact of size and age on firm-level performance: some evidence from India. Review of Industrial Organization, 12(02), 231–241.Google Scholar
  78. Maltz, E., & Kohli, A. K. (1996). Market intelligence dissemination across functional boundaries. Journal of Marketing, 33(01), 47–61.Google Scholar
  79. Martinez, J. I., & Jarillo, J. (1989). The evolution of research on coordination mechanism in multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 20(03), 489–514.Google Scholar
  80. McIntyre, R. M., & Blashfield, R. K. (1980). A nearest-centroid technique for evaluating the minimum-variance clustering procedure. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 15(02), 225–238.Google Scholar
  81. Menon, A., Bharadwaj, S. G., & Howell, R. (1996). The quality and effectiveness of marketing strategy: effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict in intraorganizational relationships. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(04), 299–313.Google Scholar
  82. Meyer, A. D., Tsui, A. S., & Hinings, C. R. (1993). Configurational approaches to organizational analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 26(06), 1175–1195.Google Scholar
  83. Miles, R. E., Snow, C. C., Meyer, A. D., & Coleman, H. J. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. Academy of Management Review, 3(03), 546–462.Google Scholar
  84. Miller, D., & Friesen, P. (1980). Archetypes of organizational transition. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(02), 286–299.Google Scholar
  85. Milligan, G. W. (1996). Clustering validation: results and implications for applied analyses. In P. Arabie, L. Hubert, & G. De Soete (Eds.), Clustering and classification (pp. 341–375). River Edge: World Scientific Publishing.Google Scholar
  86. Milligan, G. W., & Cooper, M. (1985). An Examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set. Psychometrika, 50(02), 159–179.Google Scholar
  87. Milligan, G. W., & Cooper, M. (1987). Methodology review: clustering methods. Applied Psychological Measurement, 11(04), 329–354.Google Scholar
  88. Minbaeva, D., Pedersen, T., Björkman, I., Fey, C. F., & Park, H. J. (2003). MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity, and HRM. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(06), 586–599.Google Scholar
  89. Montgomery, D. B., & Yip, G. S. (2000). The Challenge of Global Customer Management. Research Paper No. 1619. Graduate School of Business, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  90. Montgomery, D. B., Yip, G. S., & Villalonga. B. (2001). An Industry Explanation of Global Account Management. Research Paper No. 1724. Graduate School of Business, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  91. Moore, K., & Birkinshaw, J. M. (1998). Managing knowledge in global service firms: centers of excellence. The Academy of Management Executive, 12(04), 81–92.Google Scholar
  92. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(03), 20–38.Google Scholar
  93. Murray, J. Y., Yong Gao, G., & Kotabe, M. (2011). Market orientation and performance of export ventures: the process through marketing capabilities and competitive advantages. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(03), 255–275.Google Scholar
  94. Nakata, C., & Sivakumar, K. (2001). Instituting the marketing concept in a multinational setting: the role of national culture. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(03), 367–385.Google Scholar
  95. O’Donnell, S. W. (2000). Managing foreign subsidiaries: agents of headquarters, or an independent network? Strategic Management Journal, 21(05), 525–548.Google Scholar
  96. Olson, E. M., Walker, O. C., & Ruekert, R. W., Jr. (1995). Organizing for effective new product development: the moderating role of product innovativeness. Journal of Marketing, 59(01), 48–62.Google Scholar
  97. Özsomer, A., & Gencturk, E. F. (2003). A resource-based model of market learning in the subsidiary: the capabilities of exploration and exploitation. Journal of International Marketing, 8(01), 1–29.Google Scholar
  98. Pangarkar, N., & Klein, S. (2004). The impact of control on international joint venture performance: a contingency approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(03), 86–107.Google Scholar
  99. Paterson, S. L., & Brock, D. M. (2002). The development of subsidiary-management research: review and theoretical analysis. International Business Review, 11(02), 139–163.Google Scholar
  100. Phene, A., & Almeida, P. (2003). How do firms evolve? The patterns of technological evolution of semiconductor subsidiaries. International Business Review, 12(03), 349–367.Google Scholar
  101. Porter, M. E., & Millar, V. E. (1985). How information gives you competitive advantage. Harvard Business Review, 63(04), 149–160.Google Scholar
  102. Prahalad, C., & Hamel, G. (1990). The competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(03), 79–91.Google Scholar
  103. Pugh, D. S., Hickson, D. J., Hinings, C. R., & Turner, C. (1969). The context of organization structures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 14(01), 91–114.Google Scholar
  104. Punj, G., & Stewart, D. W. (1983). Cluster analysis in marketing research: review and suggestions for application. Journal of Marketing Research, 20(02), 134–148.Google Scholar
  105. Rand, W. M. (1971). Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66(336), 846–850.Google Scholar
  106. Rich, P. (1992). The organizational taxonomy: definition and design. Academy of Management Review, 17(04), 758–781.Google Scholar
  107. Roth, K., & Morrison, A. J. (1992). Implementing global strategy: characteristics of global subsidiary mandates. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(04), 715–735.Google Scholar
  108. Samiee, S., & Roth, K. (1992). The Influence of Global Marketing Standardization on Performance. Journal of Marketing, 56(02), 1–17.Google Scholar
  109. Samiee, S., Shimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. (2005). Brand origin recognition accuracy: its antecedents and consumers’ cognitive limitations. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(04), 379–397.Google Scholar
  110. Sarle, W. S. (1983). Cubic clustering criterion. Cary: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  111. Schilke, O., Reinmann, M., Birkinshaw, J., & Thomas, J. S. (2009). When Does International Marketing Standardization Matter to Firm Performance? Journal of International Marketing, 17(04), 24–46.Google Scholar
  112. Shi, L. H., White, J. C., Zou, S., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2010). Global account management strategies: drivers and outcomes. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(04), 620–638.Google Scholar
  113. Shimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: construction and validation of the CETSACLE. Journal of Marketing, 24(03), 280–289.Google Scholar
  114. Short, J., Payne, G., & Ketchen, D. (2008). Research on organizational configurations: past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management, 34(06), 1053–1079.Google Scholar
  115. Singh, J., Verbeke, W., & Rhoads, G. K. (1996). Do organizational practices matter in role stress processes? A study of direct and moderating effects for marketing-oriented boundary spanners. Journal of Marketing, 60(03), 69–86.Google Scholar
  116. Solberg, C. A. (2000). Standardization or adaptation of the international marketing mix: the role of the local subsidiary/representative. Journal of International Marketing, 8(01), 78–98.Google Scholar
  117. Taggart, J. H. (1997). Autonomy and procedural justice: a framework for evaluating subsidiary strategy. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(01), 51–76.Google Scholar
  118. Taggart, J. H. (1998). Strategy shift in MNC subsidiaries. Strategic Management Journal, 19(07), 663–681.Google Scholar
  119. Venaik, S., Midgley, D. F., & Devinney, T. M. (2005). Dual paths of performance: the impact of global pressures on MNC subsidiary conduct and performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(06), 655–675.Google Scholar
  120. Vorhies, D. W., & Morgan, N. A. (2003). A Configuration Theory Assessment of Marketing Organization Fit with Business Strategy and Its Relationship with Marketing Performance. Journal of Marketing, 67(01), 100–115.Google Scholar
  121. Walker, O. C., Jr., & Ruekert, R. W. (1987). Marketing’s role in the implementation of business strategies: a critical review and conceptual framework. Journal of Marketing, 51(03), 15–33.Google Scholar
  122. Waller, R. A., & Duncan, S. B. (1969). A Bayes Rule for the Symmetric Multiple Comparisons Problem. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 64(328), 1484–1503.Google Scholar
  123. Ward, J. H., Jr. (1963). Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 58(301), 236–244.Google Scholar
  124. White, R. E., & Poynter, A. T. (1984). Strategies for foreign-owned subsidiaries in Canada. Business Quarterly, 49(02), 59–69.Google Scholar
  125. World Trade Organization. (2009). Annual report. Geneva: World Trade Organization.Google Scholar
  126. Zou, S., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2002). The GMS: a broad conceptualization of global marketing strategy and its effect on firm performance. Journal of Marketing, 66(04), 40–56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Homburg
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andreas Fürst
    • 3
  • Christina Kuehnl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MarketingUniversity of MannheimMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Management and MarketingUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Department of MarketingUniversity of Erlangen-NürnbergNürnbergGermany

Personalised recommendations