Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 21–39 | Cite as

Mindful consumption: a customer-centric approach to sustainability

  • Jagdish N. Sheth
  • Nirmal K. SethiaEmail author
  • Shanthi Srinivas


How effectively business deals with the challenges of sustainability will define its success for decades to come. Current sustainability strategies have three major deficiencies: they do not directly focus on the customer, they do not recognize the looming threats from rising global over-consumption, and they do not take a holistic approach. We present a framework for a customer-centric approach to sustainability. This approach recasts the sustainability metric to emphasize the outcomes of business actions measured holistically in term of environmental, personal and economic well-being of the consumer. We introduce the concept of mindful consumption (MC) as the guiding principle in this approach. MC is premised on a consumer mindset of caring for self, for community, and for nature, that translates behaviorally into tempering the self-defeating excesses associated with acquisitive, repetitive and aspirational consumption. We also make the business case for fostering mindful consumption, and illustrate how the marketing function can be harnessed to successfully implement the customer-centric approach to sustainability.


Sustainability Customer-centric sustainability Mindful consumption 


  1. Ambec, S., & Lanoie, P. (2008). Does it pay to be green? A systematic overview. Academy of Management Perspectives, 22(4), 45–62.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, E. W., & Fornell, C. (2000). Foundations of the American customer satisfaction index. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 11(7), 869–882.Google Scholar
  3. Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of happiness. New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, J. E., & Lang, U. A. (2007). Changing American home life: Trends in domestic leisure and storage among middle-class families. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28, 23–48.Google Scholar
  5. Arrow, K., Dasgupta, P., Goulder, L., Daily, G., Ehrlich, P., Heal, G., Levin, S., Maler, K., Schneider, S., Starrett, D., & Walker, B. (2004). Are we consuming too much? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(3), 147–172.Google Scholar
  6. Assadourian, E. (2010). The rise and fall of consumer cultures. In: State of the world 2010: Transforming cultures (pp. 3–20). Worldwatch Institute Report. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.Google Scholar
  7. Atsmon, Y., Ding, J., Dixit, V., St. Maurice, I., Suessmuth-Dyckerhoff, C. (2009). The coming of age: China’s new class of wealthy consumers. McKinsey and Co. Google Scholar
  8. Belk, R. W. (1984). Three scales to measure constructs related to materialism: Reliability, validity, and relationships to measures of happiness. In: T. C. Kinnear (Ed.), Advances in consumer research (pp, Vol. 14, pp. 753–760). Provo: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  9. Belk, R. W. (1985). Materialism: Trait aspects of living in the material world. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 265–280.Google Scholar
  10. Belk, R. W. (2001). Materialism and you. Journal of Research for Consumers, Issue 1. (Web-based journal).
  11. Belk, R. W. (2007). Why not share rather than own? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 611, 126–140.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, M., & James, P. (Eds.). (1999). Sustainable measures: Evaluation and reporting of environmental and social performance. Sheffield: Greenleaf.Google Scholar
  13. Berns, M., Townend, A., Khayat, Z., Balagopal, B., Reeves, M., Hopkins, M., & Krushwitz, N. (2009). The business of sustainability. MIT Sloan Management Review Report.Google Scholar
  14. Bhattacharya, C. B. (2010). Introduction to the special section on stakeholder marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 1–3.Google Scholar
  15. Binswanger, M. (2006). Why does income growth fail to make us happier? Searching for treadmills behind the paradox of happiness. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 366–381.Google Scholar
  16. Bond, S. (2005). The global challenge of sustainable consumption. Consumer Policy Review, 15(2), 38–44.Google Scholar
  17. Bonini, S., & Oppenheim, J. (2008). Cultivating the green consumer. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 6, 56–61.Google Scholar
  18. Borgmann, A. (2000). The moral complexion of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 26, 418–422.Google Scholar
  19. Bourn, D., & Prescott, J. (2002). A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 42(1), 1–34.Google Scholar
  20. Cairns, S., Sloman, L., Newson, C., Anable, J., Kirkbride, A., & Goodwin, P. (2004). Smarter choices: Changing the way we travel. London: Report published by the U. K. Department for Transport.Google Scholar
  21. Carson, R. (1962). The silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  22. Cave, D. (2010). Americans doing more, buying less, a poll finds. The New York Times, p. A-14, January 3.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, M. J. (2007). Consumer credit, household financial management, and sustainable consumption. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 57–65.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, J., & Darian, J. (2000). Disposable products and the environment: A consumer behavior perspective. Research in Consumer Behavior, 9, 227–259.Google Scholar
  25. Context-Based Research Group. (2008). Grounding the American dream: A cultural study on the future of consumerism in a changing economy. Baltimore: Context-Based Research Group and Carton Donofrio Partners.Google Scholar
  26. Cooper, T. (2004). Inadequate life? Evidence of consumer attitudes to product obsolescence. Journal of Consumer Policy, 27, 421–449.Google Scholar
  27. Cooper, R., & Kaplan, R. S. (1991). Profit priorities from activity-based costing. Harvard Business Review, 69, 130–135.Google Scholar
  28. Crane, A., & Desmond, J. (2002). Societal marketing and morality. European Journal of Marketing, 36(5/6), 548–569.Google Scholar
  29. Crocker, D. A., & Linden, T. (Eds.). (1998). Ethics of consumption: The good life, justice and global stewardship. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  30. Crook, C. (2005). The good company: A survey of corporate social responsibility. The Economist, January 22.Google Scholar
  31. Cross, G. (2000). An all-consuming century: Why commercialism won in modern America. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). If we are so rich, why aren’t we happy? The American Psychologist, 54, 821–827.Google Scholar
  33. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). The costs and benefits of consuming. Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 267–272.Google Scholar
  34. D’Souza, C., & Taghian, M. (2010). Integrating precautionary principle approach in sustainable decision-making process: A proposal for a conceptual framework. Journal of Macromarketing, 30(2), 192–199.Google Scholar
  35. Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15, 1–13.Google Scholar
  36. Daly, H. E. (1996). Beyond growth: The economics of sustainable development. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  37. Daly, H. E. (2005). Economics in a full world. Scientific American, (September), 101–108.Google Scholar
  38. Daub, C.-H., & Ergenzinger, R. (2005). Enabling sustainable management through a new multi-disciplinary concept of customer satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 39(9/10), 998–1012.Google Scholar
  39. Dauvergne, P. (2008). The shadows of consumption: Consequences for the global environment. Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  40. De Geus, M. (2003). The end of over-consumption: Towards a lifestyle of moderation and self-restraint. Utrecht: International Books.Google Scholar
  41. De Graaf, J., Wann, D., & Naylor, T. H. (2005). Affluenza: The all consuming epidemic. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  42. Denove, C., & Power, J. D. (2006). Satisfaction: How every great company listens to the voice of the customer. New York: Penguin Portfolio.Google Scholar
  43. Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. Academy of Management Review, 29(1), 65–91.Google Scholar
  44. Dorman, P. (2005). Evolving knowledge and the precautionary principle. Ecological Economics, 53, 169–176.Google Scholar
  45. Drucker, P. (1973). Management: Tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  46. Durning, A. T. (1992). How much is enough? The consumer society and the future of the earth. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  47. Economist. (2009). From buy, buy to bye-bye. The Economist, (April 4), pp. 67–68.Google Scholar
  48. Egol, M., Clyde, A., Rangan, K., Sanderson, R. (2010). The new consumer frugality: Adapting to the enduring shift in U. S. consumer spending and behavior. Booz & Company.
  49. Ehrlich, P. R., & Goulder, L. H. (2007). Is current consumption excessive? A general framework and some indications for the US. Conservation Biology, 21, 1145–1154.Google Scholar
  50. Epstein, E. J., & Roy, M. J. (2003). Making the business case for sustainability: Linking social and environmental actions to financial performance. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, (9), 79–96.Google Scholar
  51. Esty, D. C., & Winston, A. S. (2006). Green to gold. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Farrell, C. (2010). The new frugality: How to consume less, save more, and live better. New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  53. Ferrell, O. C., Gonzalez-Padron, T. L., Hult, T. M., & Maignan, I. (2010). From market orientation to stakeholder orientation. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 93–96.Google Scholar
  54. Fisk, G. (1974). Marketing and the ecological crisis. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  55. Fornell, C. (2007). The satisfied customer: Winners and losers in the battle for buyer preference. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  56. Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: Nature, purpose and findings. Journal of Marketing, 60, 7–18.Google Scholar
  57. Frank, R. H. (1999). Luxury fever: Why money fails to satisfy in an era of excess. New York: Free.Google Scholar
  58. Frank, R. H. (2004). How not to buy happiness. Dædalus, Spring, 69–79.Google Scholar
  59. Franklin, D. (2008). Just good business: A special report of corporate social responsibility. The Economist, January 19.Google Scholar
  60. Frazier, G. L., & Sheth, J. N. (1985). An attitude-behavior framework for distribution channel management. Journal of Marketing, 49(3), 38–48.Google Scholar
  61. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  62. Frey, B. S. (2008). Happiness research in economics—a revolution? Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  63. Fry, M., & Polonsky, M. J. (2004). Examining the unintended consequences of marketing. Journal of Business Research, 57, 1303–1306.Google Scholar
  64. Fuchs, D. A., & Lorek, S. (2005). Sustainable consumption governance: A history of promises and failures. Journal of Consumer Policy, 28, 261–288.Google Scholar
  65. Fuller, D. A. (1999). Sustainable marketing: Managerial-ecological issues. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Galbraith, J. K. (1958/1998). The affluent society. Fortieth anniversary edition (1998). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. (Originally published in 1958).Google Scholar
  67. Gardner, G. T., & Assadourian, E. (2004). Rethinking the good life. In: Worldwatch institute state of the world 2004 (pp. 164–179). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  68. Ginsberg, J. M., & Bloom, P. N. (2004). Choosing the right green marketing strategy. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(1), 79–84.Google Scholar
  69. Gleick, P. H., & Cooley, H. S. (2009). Energy implications of bottled water. Environmental Research Letters, 4, 1–6.Google Scholar
  70. Global Footprint Network. (2009). How we can bend the curve: Trending toward a sustainable future. Global Footprint Network Annual Report.
  71. Global Humanitarian Forum. (2009). Human impact report: Climate change—the anatomy of a silent crisis. Geneva: Global Humanitarian Forum.Google Scholar
  72. Grant, J. (2007). The green marketing manifesto. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  73. Gupta, S., & Ogden, D. T. (2009). To buy or not to buy? A social dilemma perspective on green buying. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(6), 376–391.Google Scholar
  74. Hamm, S. (2008). The new age of frugality. BusinessWeek, (October 20), 55–58.Google Scholar
  75. Hansen, U., & Schrader, U. (1997). A modern model of consumption for a sustainable society. Journal of Consumer Policy, 20, 443–468.Google Scholar
  76. Harremös, P., Gee, D., MacGarvin, M., Stirling, A., Keys, J., Wynne, B., & Vaz, S. G. (Eds.). (2002). The precautionary principle in the 20th century: Late lessons from early warnings. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  77. Harrison, J. S., & St. John, C. (1996). Managing and partnering with external stakeholders. Academy of Management Executive, 10(2), 46–60.Google Scholar
  78. Hart, S. (2007). Capitalism at the crossroads: Aligning business, earth, and humanity. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education publishing as Wharton School Publishing.Google Scholar
  79. Heiskanen, E. (1996). Conditions for product life extension. Helsinki: National Consumer Research Centre. Working Paper 23.Google Scholar
  80. Hoffman, A. J., & Bazerman, M. H. (2007). Changing practice on sustainability: Understanding and overcoming the organizational and psychological barriers to action. In: S. Sharma, M. Starik, & B. Husted (Eds.), Organizations and the sustainability mosaic: Crafting long-term ecological and societal solutions. Northampton: Edward Elger.Google Scholar
  81. Hoffman, A. J., & Woody, J. (2008). Climate change: What’s your business strategy? Boston: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  82. Hubacek, K., Guan, D., & Barua, A. (2007). Changing lifestyles and consumption patterns in developing countries: A scenario analysis for China and India. Futures, 39, 1084–1096.Google Scholar
  83. Iyer, E. S., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2009). Marketing and society: Preface to special section on volunteerism, price assurances, and direct-to-consumer advertising. Journal of Business Research. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.10.001.Google Scholar
  84. Jackson, T. (2006). Readings in sustainable consumption: Introduction. In: T. Jackson (Ed.), The Earthscan reader in sustainable consumption (pp. 1–23). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  85. Jackson, T. (2009). Prosperity without growth: Economics for a finite planet. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  86. Kanter, R. M. (2009). SuperCorp: How vanguard companies create innovation, profits, growth, and social good. New York: Crown Business, Random House.Google Scholar
  87. Kasser, T. (2002). The high price of materialism. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  88. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410–422.Google Scholar
  89. Khandwalla, P. N. (2008). Management of corporate greatness. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (Pearson Education in South Asia).Google Scholar
  90. Kilbourne, W. E. (2006). The role of the dominant social paradigm in the quality of life/environmental interface. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1, 39–61.Google Scholar
  91. Kilbourne, W., & Pickett, G. (2008). How materialism affects environmental beliefs, concern, and environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Business Research, 61, 885–893.Google Scholar
  92. Kilbourne, W., McDonagh, P., & Prothero, A. (1997). Sustainable consumption and the quality of life: A macromarketing challenge to the dominant social paradigm. Journal of Macromarketing, 17, 4–24.Google Scholar
  93. King, A., Burgess, S., Ijomah, W., & McMahon, C. (2006). Reducing waste: Repair, recondition, remanufacture or recycle? Sustainable Development, 14, 257–267.Google Scholar
  94. Kiviat, B. (2009). Why big shopping bargains are bad news for America. Time, November 27.Google Scholar
  95. Kotler, P. (1973). The major tasks of marketing management. Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 42–49.Google Scholar
  96. Kotler, P. (1977). From sales obsession to marketing effectiveness. Harvard Business Review, 55(6), 67–75.Google Scholar
  97. Kotler, P., & Levy, S. (1971). Demarketing, yes, demarketing. Harvard Business Review, 49(6), 74–80.Google Scholar
  98. Kotler, P., & Zaltman, G. (1971). Social marketing: An approach to planned social change. Journal of Marketing, 35(3), 3–12.Google Scholar
  99. Kotler, P., Roberto, N., & Lee, N. (2002). Social marketing: Improving the quality of life. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  100. Kumar, V., & Rajan, B. (2009). Profitable customer management: Measuring and maximizing customer lifetime value. Management Accounting Quarterly, 10, 1–18.Google Scholar
  101. Lane, R. E. (2000). The loss of happiness in market democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Layard, R. (2005). Happiness: Lessons from a new science. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  103. Leiserowitz, A. A., Kates, R. W., & Parris, T. M. (2006). Sustainability values, attitudes, and behaviors: A review of multinational and global trends. Annual Review of Environmental Resources, 31, 413–444.Google Scholar
  104. Leopold, A. (1989). A Sand County almanac and sketches here and there. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Lowenstein, R. (2010). Paralyzed by debt. The New York Times (Sunday Magazine), MM15+, July18.Google Scholar
  106. Lubin, D. A., & Esty, D. C. (2010). The sustainability imperative. Harvard Business Review, 88(5), 42–50.Google Scholar
  107. Maignan, I., Ferrell, O. C., & Ferrell, L. (2005). A stakeholder model for implementing social responsibility in marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 39(9/10), 956–977.Google Scholar
  108. Makower, J. (2009). Strategies for the green economy. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  109. Marchant, G. E. (2003). From general policy to legal rule: Aspirations and limitations of the precautionary principle. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(14), 1799–1803.Google Scholar
  110. Mayer, A. L. (2008). Strengths and weaknesses of common sustainability indices for multidimensional systems. Environment International, 34, 277–291.Google Scholar
  111. McCollough, J. (2007). The effect of income growth on the mix of purchases between disposable goods and reusable goods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 213–219.Google Scholar
  112. McCollough, J. (2009). Factors impacting the demand for repair services of household products: The disappearing repair trades and the throwaway society. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, 619–626.Google Scholar
  113. McKinsey Global Institute. (2007). The ‘bird of gold’: The rise of India’s consumer market. McKinsey & Co.Google Scholar
  114. McMichael, A. J., Woodruff, R. E., & Hales, S. (2006). Climate change and human health: Present and future risks. The Lancet, 367, 859–869.Google Scholar
  115. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. I., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W. (1972). The limits to growth: A report to the Club of Rome. New York: Universe Books.Google Scholar
  116. Mick, D. G. (2007). The end(s) of marketing and the neglect of moral responsibility by the American Marketing Association. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 26, 289–292.Google Scholar
  117. Miles, M. P., & Covin, J. C. (2000). Environmental marketing: A source of reputational, competitive and financial advantage. Journal of Business Ethics, 23, 299–311.Google Scholar
  118. Mish, J., & Scammon, D. L. (2010). Principle-based stakeholder marketing: Insights from private triple-bottom-line firms. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 12–26.Google Scholar
  119. Moisander, J. (2007). Motivational complexity of green consumerism. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 404–409.Google Scholar
  120. Mont, O. (2004). Institutionalization of sustainable consumption patterns based on shared use. Ecological Economics, 50, 135–153.Google Scholar
  121. Mooallem, J. (2009). The self-storage self. The New York Times Magazine (September 6), pp. MM-24+.Google Scholar
  122. Murphy, P. E. (2005). Sustainable marketing. Business & Professional Ethics Journal, 24(1 & 2), 171–198.Google Scholar
  123. Myers, N. (2000). Sustainable consumption. Science, 287 (5462, March 31), 2419.Google Scholar
  124. Naess, A. (1990). Ecology, community and lifestyle: Outline of an ecosophy. (D. Rothenberg, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  125. National Research Council, Policy Division, Board on Sustainable Development. (1999). Our common journey: A transition toward sustainability. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  126. Newport, F., & Jacobe, D. (2009). Consumers adjust attitudes toward spending.
  127. Nidumolu, R., Prahalad, C. K., & Rangaswami, M. R. (2009). Why sustainability is now the key driver of innovation. Harvard Business Review, 87(9), 56–64.Google Scholar
  128. Norton, B. (1992). Sustainability, human welfare and ecosystem health. Environmental Values, 1(2), 97–111.Google Scholar
  129. Offer, A. (2006). The challenge of affluence. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Ottman, J. A. (1998). Green marketing: Opportunity for innovation. Lincolnwood: NTC Business Books.Google Scholar
  131. Ottman, J. A., Stafford, E. R., & Hartman, C. L. (2006). Avoiding green marketing myopia. Environment, 48(5), 22–36.Google Scholar
  132. Paine, L. S. (2003). Value shift. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  133. Parmar, B. L., Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Purnell, L., & de Colle, S. (2010). Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. Academy of Management Annals, 4(1), 403–445.Google Scholar
  134. Peattie, K., & Crane, A. (2005). Green marketing: Legend, myth, farce or prophesy? Qualitative Market Research, 8, 357–370.Google Scholar
  135. Peattie, K., & Peattie, S. (2009). Social marketing: A pathway to consumption reduction? Journal of Business Research, 62, 260–268.Google Scholar
  136. Pfeffer, J. (2010). Building sustainable organizations: The human factor. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(1), 34–45.Google Scholar
  137. Polonsky, M. J., & Rosenberger, P. J. (2001). Reevaluating green marketing: A strategic approach. Business Horizons, 44, 21–30.Google Scholar
  138. Porter, M. C., & van der Linde, C. (1995). Green and competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review, 73(5), 120–134.Google Scholar
  139. Prahalad, C. K. (2004). The Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School (Pearson Education).Google Scholar
  140. Pretty, J., Ball, A. S., Benton, T., Guivant, J., Lee, D., Orr, D., Preffer, M., & Ward, H. (Eds.). (2007). Introduction to environment and society by the Editors. SAGE Handbook on environment and society. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  141. Princen, T. (2002). Consumption and its externalities: Where economy meets ecology. In: T. Princen, M. Maniates, & K. Conca (Eds.), Confronting consumption (pp. 23–42). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  142. Quelch, J. A., & Jocz, K. E. (2007). Greater good: How good marketing makes for a better world. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  143. Raghubir, P., Roberts, J., Lemon, K. N., & Winer, R. S. (2010). Why, when, and how should the effect of marketing be measured? A stakeholder perspective for corporate social responsibility metrics. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 66–77.Google Scholar
  144. Rangan, V. K., Quelch, J. A., Herrero, G., & Barton, B. (Eds.). (2007). Business solutions for the global poor: Creating social and economic value. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  145. Reich, R. B. (2009). From consumers to commons. American Prospect, 20, 36.Google Scholar
  146. Ritzer, G. (2005). Enchanting a disenchanted world: Revolutionizing the means of consumption. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge (Sage Imprint).Google Scholar
  147. Roach, S. S. (2008). Dying of consumption. The New York Times, p. A 43, November 28.Google Scholar
  148. Rogers, H. (2010). Green gone wrong: How our economy is undermining the environmental revolution. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  149. Rothenberg, S. (2007). Sustainability through servicizing. MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter, 83–91.Google Scholar
  150. Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2009). Conspicuous consumption versus utilitarian ideals: How different levels of power shape consumer behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 549–555.Google Scholar
  151. Salzmann, O., Ionescu-Somers, A., & Steger, U. (2005). The business case for corporate sustainability: Literature review and research options. European Management Journal, 23(1), 27–36.Google Scholar
  152. Schaefer, A., & Crane, A. (2005). Addressing sustainable consumption. Journal of Macromarketing, 25, 76–92.Google Scholar
  153. Schor, J. B. (1992). The overworked American: The unexpected decline of leisure. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  154. Schor, J. B. (1999). The overspent American: Why we want what we don’t need. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  155. Schor, J. B. (2005). Prices and quantities: Unsustainable consumption and the global economy. Ecological Economics, 55, 309–320.Google Scholar
  156. Schor, J. B. (2010). Plenitude: The new economics of true wealth. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  157. Schrader, U. (2007). The moral responsibility of consumers as citizens. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 2, 79–96.Google Scholar
  158. Schueth, S. (2003). Socially responsible investing in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 43, 189–194.Google Scholar
  159. Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful: Economics as if people mattered. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  160. Schwab Advisor Services. (2010). Independent advisor outlook study. Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.Google Scholar
  161. Sethi, S. P. (2005). Investing in socially responsible companies is a must for public pension funds—Because there is no better alternative. Journal of Business Ethics, 56, 99–129.Google Scholar
  162. Seyfang, G. (2009). The new economics of sustainable consumption. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  163. Sheth, J. N., & Frazier, G. L. (1982). A model of strategy mix choice for planned social change. Journal of Marketing, 46, 15–26.Google Scholar
  164. Sheth, J. N., & Mammana, N. J. (1974). Recent failures in consumer protection. California Management Review, 26(30), 64–72.Google Scholar
  165. Sheth, J. N., & Parvatiyar, A. (1995). Ecological imperatives and the role of marketing. In: M. J. Polonsky & A. T. Mintu Wimsatt (Eds.), Environmental marketing (pp. 3–20). New York: The Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  166. Sheth, J. N., & Sisodia, R. S. (2002). Marketing productivity: Issues and analysis. Journal of Business Research, 55, 349–362.Google Scholar
  167. Silverstein, M. J., & Fiske, N. (2008). Trading up: Why consumers want new luxury goods-and how companies create them. New York: Penguin/Portfolio.Google Scholar
  168. Simanis, E., & Hart, S. (2009). Innovation from the inside out. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(4), 77–86.Google Scholar
  169. Slade, G. (2006). Made to break: Technology and obsolescence in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  170. Smith, N. C., Drumwright, M. E., & Gentile, M. C. (2010). The new marketing myopia. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 4–11.Google Scholar
  171. Social Investment Forum. (2007). 2007 Report on socially responsible investing trends in the United States. Washington, DC: Social Investment Forum.Google Scholar
  172. Som, C., Hilty, L. M., & Kohler, A. R. (2009). The precautionary principle as a framework for a sustainable information society. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 493–505.Google Scholar
  173. Speth, G. (2008). The bridge at the edge of the world: Capitalism, the environment, and crossing from crisis to sustainability. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Stern, P. C. (1997). Towards a working definition of consumption for environmental research and policy. In: P. C. Stern, T. Dietz, V. W. Ruttan, R. H. Socolow, & J. Sweeney (Eds.), Environmentally significant consumption: Research directions (pp. 12–25). Washington, DC: National Academy.Google Scholar
  175. Storbacka, K. (1997). Segmentation based on customer profitability—retrospective analysis of retail bank customer bases. Journal of Marketing Management, 13, 479–492.Google Scholar
  176. Strasser, S. (1999). Waste and want. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  177. Thøgersen, J. (2005). How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles? Journal of Consumer Policy, 28, 143–178.Google Scholar
  178. Trejos, N. (2009). Recession lesson: share and swap replaces grab and buy. The Washington Post, July 17.Google Scholar
  179. U. N. Millennium Project. (2005). Environment and human well-being: A practical strategy. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  180. USA Today. (2007). 25 trends that changed America. USA Today (March 26).
  181. van Raaij, E. M. (2005). The strategic value of customer profitability analysis. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 23, 372–381.Google Scholar
  182. Varey, R. J. (2010). Marketing means and ends for a sustainable society: A welfare agenda for transformative change. Journal of Macromarketing, 30(2), 112–126.Google Scholar
  183. Veblen, T. (1899). The theory of the leisure class. New York: Modern Library.Google Scholar
  184. Viswanathan, M., Seth, A., Gau, R., & Chaturvedi, A. (2009). Ingraining product relevant social good into business processes in subsistence marketplaces: The sustainable market orientation. Journal of Macromarketing, 29(4), 406–425.Google Scholar
  185. Walls, M. (2006). Extended producer responsibility and product design: Economic theory and selected case studies. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  186. Wapner, P., & Matthew, R. A. (2009). The humanity of global environmental ethics. Journal of Environment and Development, 18, 203–222.Google Scholar
  187. Wasik, J. F. (1996). Green marketing and management: A global perspective. Cambridge: Blackwell Business.Google Scholar
  188. Watts, G. (2009). The health benefits of tackling climate change: An executive summary. The Lancet Series.Google Scholar
  189. WBCSD. (2008). Sustainable consumption facts and trend from a business perspective. Geneva: World Business Council for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
  190. WCED. (1987). Our common future. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  191. WEF. (2009). Sustainability for tomorrow’s consumer: The business case for sustainability. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  192. WEF. (2010). Redesigning business value: A road map for sustainable consumption. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  193. Werbach, A. (2009). Strategy for sustainability: A business manifesto. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  194. Westra, L., & Werhane, P. H. (Eds.). (1998). The business of consumption: Environmental ethics and the global economy. Lanham: Rowman and Little.Google Scholar
  195. Whybrow, P. C. (2005). American mania: When more is not enough. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  196. Worldwatch Institute. (2008). State of the world: Innovations for a sustainable economy. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  197. Worldwatch Institute. (2010). State of the world: Transforming cultures, from consumerism to sustainability. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jagdish N. Sheth
    • 1
  • Nirmal K. Sethia
    • 2
    Email author
  • Shanthi Srinivas
    • 2
  1. 1.Kellstadt Professor of Marketing, Goizueta Business SchoolEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Professors of Management and Human Resources, College of Business AdministrationCalifornia State Polytechnic University, PomonaPomonaUSA

Personalised recommendations