Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 787–806 | Cite as

Measuring personal cultural orientations: scale development and validation

  • Piyush Sharma
Original Empirical Research


Cross-cultural studies using Hofstede’s national scores to operationalize his five cultural factors at an individual level suffer from ecological fallacy, and those using self-report scales treat cultural factors as unidimensional constructs and provide little or no evidence of the construct validity and measurement equivalence of these scales. This paper reconceptualizes Hofstede’s five cultural factors as ten personal cultural orientations and develops a new 40-item scale to measure them. It also establishes the validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale, and discusses its advantages over other scales.


Culture Horizontal–vertical Individualism–collectivism Long-term orientation Masculinity–femininity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance 


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© Academy of Marketing Science 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and MarketingThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloonHong Kong

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