Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 97–108 | Cite as

A descriptive model of the consumer co-production process

  • Michael EtgarEmail author
Methodological Paper



This article presents a model of consumer engagement in co-production.


A theoretical paper which develops a five-stage dynamic model of consumer involvement in co-production.

Results and Conclusions

The article discusses the basic linkages between co-production and customization and presents co-production as a dynamic process which is composed of five distinct stages. It also specifies five distinct phases of the production activity chain where consumers can become involved in co-production. The model offers researchers an analytical framework conducive for more advanced studies of the phenomenon from both descriptive and analytical points of view. Managers can use it to segment consumers according to their tendencies to engage in co-production and suggests bases for developing corresponding offers of co-production possibilities which focus on diverse consumer benefits.


Co-production Co-creation Customization Risk reduction Activity chains 



The author wishes to thank the editors, Robert Lusch and Stephen Vargo, and two anonymous referees for their helpful comments on early drafts of this article. He acknowledges the assistance of the Research Unit at the School of Business Administration at the College of Management in Rishon Lezion in Israel for its financial support.


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Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Business AdministrationCollege of ManagementRishon LezionIsrael

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