Advertisement

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 75, Issue 10, pp 1411–1415 | Cite as

Pretreatment of corn oil for physical refining

  • Rosemar AntoniassiEmail author
  • Walter Esteves
  • Antonio José de Almeida Meirelles
Article

Abstract

Crude corn oil that contained 380 ppm of phosphorus and 5% of free fatty acids was degummed, bleached, and winterized for physical refining. The pretreatment and the steam-refining conditions were studied in pilot plant scale (2 kg/batch). The efficiency of wet degumming and of the total degumming processes, at different temperatures, was evaluated. TriSyl silica was tested as an auxiliary agent in the reduction of the phosphorus content before bleaching. The experimental conditions of the physical refining were: temperature at 240 or 250°C; 8 to 18 mbar vacuum, and distillation time varying from 1 to 3 h. Degumming at 10 or 30°C resulted in the removal of more phosphorus than at 70°C. Water degumming was more efficient than the processes of total degumming or acid degumming. Corn oil, degummed at 10 or 30°C, after bleaching passed the cold test, irrespective of the degumming agent used. Degumming and winterization took place simultaneously at these temperatures. The pretreatment was able to reduce the phosphorus content to less than 5 ppm. The amount of bleaching earth was reduced by carrying out dry degumming or by using silica before bleaching. Corn oil acidity, after physical refining, varied from 0.49 to 1.87%, depending on the residence time. Contrary to alkali refining, physical refining did not promote color removal due to the fixation of pigments present in the crude corn oil.

Key words

Bleaching corn oil degumming physical refining pretreatment silica 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Carr, R.A., Refining and Degumming Systems for Edible Fats and Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 55:765–711 (1978).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haraldsson, G., Degumming, Dewaxing and Refining, Ibid.203A-208A (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carlsson, K., and A. Rubini, Metodi di Degommaggio e Neutralizzazione Degli oli Vegetali e Grassi Animali, Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse 64:481–485 (1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cvengros, J., Physical Refining of Edible Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72:1193–1196 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Forster, A., and A.J. Harper, Physical Refining, Ibid.217A-223A (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jawad, I.M., S.P. Kochhar, and B.J.F. Hudson, Quality Characteristics of Physically Refined Soyabean Oil: Effects of Pretreatment and Processing Time and Temperature, J. Food Technol. 18:353–360 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leibovitz, Z., and C. Ruckenstein, Our Experiences in Processing Maize (Corn) Germ Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60:347A-351A (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Balicer, Z., Z. Leibovitz, and C. Ruckenstein, Physical (Steam) Refining—Advantages and Limits for Soft Oils, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 86:537–540 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leibovitz, Z., and C. Ruckenstein, New Process in Degumming, Bleaching, Deacidification-Deodorization and Winterizing of Edible Oils, Rev. Franç. Corps Gras 28:303–308 (1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cleenerwerck, B., and A.J. Dijkstra, The Total Degumming Process—Theory and Industrial Application in Refining and Hydrogenation, Fat Sci. Technol. 94:317–322 (1992).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wesdorp, L., Current Trends in Oil Processing, Lipid Technol. 8:129–135 (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Segers, J.C., Superdegumming, a New Degumming Process and Its Effect on the Effluent Problems of Edible Oil Refining, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 84:543–546 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Segers, J.C., and R.L.K.M. van de Sande, Degumming—Theory and Practice, in World Conference Proceedings. Edible Oils and Fats Processing: Basic Principles and Modern Practices, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Maastricht, The Netherlands, October 1–7, 1989, pp. 88–93.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dijkstra, A.J., and M. Van Opstal, Process for Producing Degummed Vegetable Oils and Gums of High Phosphatidic Acid Content, U.S. Patent 4,698,185 (1987).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parker, P.M., Innovations in Refining Technology: Silica Adsorbents for Edible Oil, Oils Fats Int. 10:24–27 (1994).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Siew, W.L., Y.A. Tan, and T.S. Tang, Silica Refining of Palm Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71:1013–1016 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dimic, E., D. Karlovic, and J. Turkulov, Pretreatment Efficiency for Physical Refining of Sunflowerseed Oil, Ibid.1357–1361 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Strecker, L.R., A. Maza, and G.F. Winnie, Corn Oil, Composition, Processing and Utilization, in World Conference Proceedings. Edible Fats and Oils Processing: Basic Principles and Modern Practices, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Maastricht, The Netherlands, October 1–7, 1989, pp. 309–323.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1997, Methods Ca 5a-40, Ca 12-55, Cc 17-95, Cc 11-53.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dijkstra, A.J., and M. Van Opstal, The Total Degumming Process, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66:1002–1009 (1989).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Esteves, W., L.A.G. Gonçalves, and R. Antoniassi, Degumming of Rice Bran Oil for Physical Refining, in American Oil Chemists’ Society 86th Annual Meeting, 1995, San Antonio, Texas, INFORM 6:489 (1995).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Diosady, L.L., Scale-Up of Canola Oil Degumming, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61:1366–1369 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosemar Antoniassi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Walter Esteves
    • 1
  • Antonio José de Almeida Meirelles
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculdade de Engenharia de AlimentosUNICAMPCampinas, SPBrazil
  2. 2.EMBRAPA-CTAARio de Janeiro, RJBrazil

Personalised recommendations