Advertisement

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 74, Issue 3, pp 293–297 | Cite as

Effect of fatty acid composition of phospholipids on their antioxidant properties and activity index

  • Chigozie Victor Nwosu
  • Leon C. Boyd
  • Brian Sheldon
Article

Abstract

Various phospholipids may act as antioxidants or prooxidants. This study investigated the effects of three phospholipid classes and their fatty acid composition on antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine from salmon and menhaden oil were measured by oxidation induction time. An antioxidant activity index was determined in these systems with the Rancimat 617. Fatty acid profiles of the individual phospholipids and total oils were determined by gas-liquid chromatography before and after oxidation. The index was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the headgroup and fatty acid composition of the phospholipid. Lipids with a choline headgroup had oxidation induction times greater than 60 h in the salmon oil system. The choline-containing phospholipid also offered better (P<0.05) protection from oxidation to the n-3 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in salmon oil. Phospholipids containing more saturated fatty acids had longer oxidation induction times (>84 h) and higher antioxidant index (>9). Chainlength of the fatty acids may have contributed to the observed index, as phospholipids with longer chains (i.e., C18 and above) had longer oxidation induction times. Phospholipids tested in this study had little or no antioxidant activity in menhaden oil, nor did they offer protection to n-3 or total polyunsaturated fatty acids in this oil. These findings suggest that fatty acid profiles of individual oils may influence the antioxidant index of each phospholipid.

Key words

Activity index fatty acid profile induction time phospholipids 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nawar, W.W., Lipids, in Food Chemistry, 2nd edn., edited by O. Fenema, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1985, pp. 139–244.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pongracz, G., Stabilization of Cocoa Butter Substitute Fats, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 84:269–272 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Läubli, M.W., and P.A. Bruttel, Determination of the Oxidative Stability of Fats and Oils: Comparison Between the Active Oxygen Method (AOCS Cd 12-57) and the Rancimat Method, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63:792–795 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frank, J.G., J.V. Geil, and R. Freaso, Automatic Determination of Oxidation Stability of Oil and Fatty Products, Food Technol. 36:71–77 (1982).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, Z.Y., and W.W. Nawar, The Role of Amino Acids in the Autoxidation of Milk Fat, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68:47–50 (1991).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takama, K., T. Suzuki, K. Fukunaga, and S. Suzuki, Dietary Squid Phospholipid Suppresses Erythrocytes and Hepatic Membrane Damages Caused by Lipid Peroxides, in Seafood Science and Technology, edited by E.G. Bligh, Fishing News Books, Halifax, Canada, 1990, pp. 210–215.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    King, M.F., L.C. Boyd, and B.W. Sheldon, Effects of Phospholipids on Lipid Oxidation of a Salmon Oil Model System, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69:237–242 (1992).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohshima, T., Y. Fujita, and C. Koizumi, Oxidative Stability of Sardine and Mackerel Lipids with Reference to Synergism Between Phospholipids and γ-Tocopherol. Ibid.:269–276 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen, Z.Y., and W.W. Nawar, Proxidative and Antioxidative Effects of Phospholipids on Milk Fat, Ibid.:938–940 (1991).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lambelet, P., F. Saucy, and J. Löliger, Radical Exchange Reactions Between Vitamin E, Vitamin C and Phospholipids in Autoxidizing Polyunsaturated Lipids, Free Rad. Res. 20:1–10 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frankel, E.N., In Search of Better Methods to Evaluate Natural Antioxidants and Oxidative Stability in Food Lipids, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 4:220–225 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Larick, D.K., and B.E. Turner, Influence of Finishing Diet on the Phospholipid Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Individual Phospholipids in Lean Muscle of Beef Cattle, J. Anim. Sci. 67:2282–2293 (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mutua, L.N., and C.C. Akoh, Lipase-Catalyzed Modification of Phospholipids: Incorporation of n-3 Fatty Acids into Biosurfactants, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70:125–128 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Christie, W.W., Preparation of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters, INFORM 3:1031–1033 (1992).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boyd, L.C., D.P. Green, F.B. Giesbrecht, and M.F. King, Inhibition of Oxidative Rancidity in Frozen Cooked Fish Flakes by tert-Butylhydroquinone and Rosemary Extract, J. Sci. Food Agric. 61:87–93 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    SAS, SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Ver. 5 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 1985.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steel, R.G.D., and J.H. Torrie, Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometric Approach, 2nd edn., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1980, pp. 190–191.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nwosu, C.V., and L.C. Boyd, Oxidative stability of Various Oils as Determined by the Rancimat Method, in Proceedings of Annual Conference Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Conference of the Americas, edited by W.S. Otwell, Florida Sea Grant College Program, 1994, pp. 368–373.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosen, M.J., Micelle Formation by Surfactants, in Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, 2nd edn., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989, pp. 108–168.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mason, J.T., and C. Huang, Chain Length Dependent Thermodynamics of Saturated Symmetric-Chain Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers, Lipids 16:604–608 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koizumi, C., S. Wada, and T. Ohshima, Factors Affecting Development of Rancidity Off Odor in Cooked Fish Meats During Storage at 5°C, Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish 53:2003–2009 (1987).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Toyomizu, M., K. Hanaoka, and T. Nakamura, Lipid Oxidation in the Skin During Storage of Fish in the Round at −5°C and Susceptibility Predictable for Lipid Oxidation, Ibid.:1011–1014 (1980).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yamaguchi, K., T. Nakamura, and M. Toyomizu, Preferential Lipid Oxidation in the Skin of Round Fish, Ibid.:869–874 (1984).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yamaguchi, K., M. Toyomizu, and T. Nakamura, Stability of Lipids Extracted from the Ordinary Muscle and Skin of Fishes, Ibid.:1245–1249 (1984).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Philips, M.C., R.M. Williams, and D. Chapman, On the Nature of Hydrocarbon Chain Motions in Lipid Crystals, Chem. Phys., Lipids 3:234–244 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chigozie Victor Nwosu
    • 1
  • Leon C. Boyd
    • 2
  • Brian Sheldon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Animal IndustriesAlabama A&M UniversityNormal
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleigh

Personalised recommendations