Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 94, Issue 2, pp 301–308 | Cite as

Effect of Selected Polyhydric Alcohols on Refining Oil Loss in the Neutralization Step

  • Kanok Yooritphun
  • Supathra Lilitchan
  • Kornkanok Aryusuk
  • Kanit Krisnangkura
Original Paper


Alkaline neutralization is a classical method for removal of free fatty acids (FFA) in crude oil. It is generally accompanied by neutral oil loss. Thus, reduction of refining losses associated with alkaline neutralization is very desirable. Refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oils with different FFA contents were used as oil models in this study. FFA in the oil models were neutralized with sodium hydroxide in polyhydric alcohols as neutralization media. Glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol in water were effective neutralization media. FFA in the oil models were totally removed in one step of neutralization, while percentages of refining losses were different. The losses were increased in the order of water > propylene glycol > ethylene glycol > glycerol used as neutralization media. Also, a higher concentration of polyhydric alcohol in the neutralizing media significantly reduced the percentage of refining loss (p < 0.05). Glycerol (90% in water) was the most effective neutralization media (p < 0.05). When neutralization was carried out on crude palm oil (containing 7.53% FFA), refining loss was reduced from 36.1% (in water) to 20.0% (in 90% glycerol in water).


Alkali refining Free fatty acids Neutralization Palm oil Polyhydric alcohol Refining oil loss 



This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and the Commission on Higher Education (CHE), contract No. MRG5280106. The authors would like to thank Dr. Carol Hutchinson, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, for editing the revised MS, and Lamsoon Thailand Co. Ltd. for donating crude palm oil.


  1. 1.
    Kamba EA, Itodo AU, Ogah E (2013) Utilization of different emulsifying agents in the preparation and stabilization of emulsions. Int J Mater Chem 3:69–74Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tandy D, McPherson W (1984) Physical refining of edible oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:1253–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Forster A, Harper AJ (1983) Physical refining. J Am Oil Chem Soc 60:265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Das PK, Chaudhuri A, Kaimal TNB, Bhalerao UT (1998) Isolation of γ-oryzanol through calcium ion induced precipitation of anionic micellar aggregates. J Agric Food Chem 46:3073–3080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aryusuk K, Puengtham J, Lilitchan S, Jeyashoke N, Krisnangkura K (2008) Effects of crude rice bran oil components on alkali refining loss. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mishra A, Gopalakrishna AG, Prabhakar JV (1988) Factors affecting refining losses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:1605–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chumsantea S, Aryusuk K, Lilitchan S, Jeyashoke N, Krisnangkura K (2012) Reducing oil losses in alkali refining. J Am Oil Chem Soc 89:1913–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Del Carpio E, Rodriguez S, Rondon M, Borges B (2014) Stability of water–Boscan crude oil emulsions: effect of salt, alcohols and glycols. J Petrol Sci Eng 122:542–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Adilbekova AO, Omarova KI, Karakulova A, Musabekov KB (2015) Nonionic surfactants based on polyoxyalkylated copolymers used as demulsifying agents. Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem Eng Aspects 480:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hennessey PM, Neuman M, Kalis BA, Hellinx G (1995) Use of coalescence methods to solve emulsion problems. Hydrocarb Process 74:107–124Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lissant KL (1983) Demulsification. Industrial applications, Vol 13. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bailes PJ, Freestone D, Sams GW (1997) Pulse DC field for electrostatic coalescence of water-in-oil emulsions. Chem Eng 23:34–39Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim BY, Moon JH, Sung TH, Yang SM, Kim JD (2002) Demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions by a continuous electrostatic dehydrator. Sep Sci Technol 37:1307–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldszal A, Bourrel M (2000) Demulsification of crude oil emulsions: correlation to microemulsion phase behavior. J Ind Eng Chem Res 39:2746–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldblatt ME, Gucciardi JM, Hubon CM, Vasconcellos SR, Liao WP (2006) New polyelectrolyte emulsion breaker improves oily wastewater cleanup at lower usage rates. Water and Process Technologies. Article number TP382en0603Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Agruss M, Chicago, Schindler H (1942) Breaking of crude oil emulsions. US Patent 2,365,853Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Choi OK, Cho KS, Ryu HW, Chang YK (2003) Enhancement of phase separation by the addition of de-emulsifiers to three-phase (diesel oil/biocatalyst/aqueous phase) emulsion in diesel biodesulfurization. Biotechnol Lett 25:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cruz S, Yousfi K, Perez A, Mariscal C, Garcia J (2007) Salt improves physical extraction of olive oil. J Eur Food Res Technol 225:359–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Perez A, Romero C, Yousfi K, Garcıa J (2008) Modulation of olive oil quality using NaCl as extraction coadjuvant. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85:685–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sun D, Duan X, Li W, Zhou D (1998) Demulsification of water-in-oil emulsion by using porous glass membrane. J Membr Sci 146:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Duke RB (1983) Mineral acid demulsification of surfactant containing emulsion. US Patent 4,396,530Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ayres EE (1917) Process whereby neutral oils can be profitably recover from their foots or soap-stock. US Patent 1,247,782Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rondón M, Pereira JC, Bouriat P, Graciaa A, Lachaise J, Salager JL (2008) Breaking of water-in-crude-oil emulsions. 2.Influence of asphaltene concentration and diluent nature on demulsifier action. Energy Fuels 22:702–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Borges B, Rondón M, Sereno O, Asuaje J (2009) Breaking of water-in-crude-oil emulsions. 3.Influence salinity water–oil ratio demulsifier action. Energy Fuels 23:1568–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim YH (1999) Kinetics of destabilization for oil in water emulsions in oily wastewater. J Ind Eng Chem 5:22–31Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kittiratanapiboon K, Krisnangkura K (2008) Separation of acylglycerols, FAME and FFA in a biodiesel reactor. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:422–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chumsantea S, Aryusuk K, Lilitchan S, Jeyashoke N, Krisnangkura K (2014) Monitoring the reaction mixtures for preparation of policosanol from rice bran wax via a phenogel column. Proceeding of 1st Joint ACS AGFD-ACS ICSCT Symposium on agricultural and food chemistry, Thailand, p 52–57Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    American Oil Chemist’s Society (1997) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society method Ca 5a-40, 5th edn. AOCS Press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Verruto V, Le RY, Kilpatrick P (2009) Adsorption and molecular rearrangement of amphoteric species at oil–water interfaces. J Phys Chem 113:13788–13799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    American Oil Chemist’s Society (1997) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society method Ca 9a-41, 5th edn. AOCS Press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanok Yooritphun
    • 1
  • Supathra Lilitchan
    • 2
  • Kornkanok Aryusuk
    • 1
  • Kanit Krisnangkura
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Bioresources and TechnologyKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public HealthMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations